TAPE SCRIPT FOR PATTERN PRACTICE

Note to the student: To get the greatest profit from exercise in the tape laboratory with these exercises and all other tape materials, it is recommended that about half the time you follow the tapes without looking at any printed copy, but the other half of the time, do look at the copy.

1

A. There are three things to do with this exercise. First, listen to the sentence. Second, in the pause say who gets found, or seen, or had, etc. You can tell this by the ending in -m. Depend on the ending — not on word order or guessing the sense. Third, listen to the tape give the correct answer. Before you start, here is a free sample: María habuit agnum. The answer is: agnum. — Ready now: María vidit agnum. Columbus habuit navem. Isabella habuit pecuniam. Columbus invénit Américam. Maríam habuit agnus. Maríam vidit agnus. Columbum habuit navis. Américam invénit Columbus. Agnum habuit María. Agnum vidit María. Navem habuit Columbus. Pecuniam habuit Isabella. Isabella pecuniam habuit. María agnum habuit. María agnum vidit. Columbus navem habuit. Maríam Marcus vidit. Marcum María vidit. Maríam habuit Marcus. Habuit Marcum María. Marcum María invénit. Invénit Maríam Marcus. Invénit Columbus Américam. Habuit Isabellam pecunia. Invénit pecunia Isabellam.

B. We shall now go over the same sentences again, but this time, after hearing the sentence, do not say who gets found, etc., but say who finds, who sees, etc. The word you want will not end in -m — it will end in -a, -us, or is. Here is a free sample: María habuit agnum. The answer is: María. — Ready now: (same set of sentences as in A).

C. We shall now go over the sentences three times, but this time, let us translate each example.

2

Now let us go over the sentences three times, and od the same three things as we did in the first lesson: Románi amavérunt porcos. Romános amavérunt porci. Amavérunt porcos Románi. Amavérunt Románi porcos. Vidérunt agni porcos. Vidérunt porcos agni. Vidérunt porci agnos. Vidérunt porcos agni. Amavérunt Etruscos Románi. Etruscos Románi amavérunt. Romános Etrusci amavérunt. Vidérunt Romános Etrusci. Vidérunt Etrusci Romános. Vidérunt Etruscos Románi. Vidérunt Románi Etruscos. Regínae1 amavérunt Romános. Regínas amavérunt Románi. Amavérunt Románi regínas. Amavérunt Romános regínae. Amavérunt reginae Romános. Amavérunt regínas Románi. Terrae Romános vidérunt. Vidérunt Romános terrae. Románi terras vidérunt. (The following comment applies only the first time through, of course): And now for a few with the -es ending in which that word could be either the one who sees or the one who is seen. Sample: Naves vidérunt Románi. The answer is: naves, because Románi could only be the ones who see, not the ones who are seen, and so naves must be the ones who are seen. — Naves vidérunt Románi. Naves Románi habuérunt. Habuérunt naves Romános. Romános naves habuérunt. Romános urbes habuérunt.

1 The -ae ending is the nominative plural of nouns like terra.

3

A. Listen to these phrases, notice the ending used with the word after each preposition. Repeat each phrase after the tape, then translate each phrase: Cum agno. Ad urbem. Ad scholam. Ad Marcum. Ad scholas. Ad porcos. Ante Marcum. Ante agnos. Ante reginam. Ante puellas. Cum Marco. Cum regína. Cum rege. Ante Maríam. Ad navem. Cum agno.

B. Now listen to these samples with the preposition in. Notice the ending used in each example, which depends on whether or not the in means staying in a place or moving into a place. Repeat each sentence after the tape, then translate each example: Románi habuérunt reges in primis annis. Porci venérunt in forum. Porci fuérunt in foro. Tarquinius remansit in urbe. Etrusci fuérunt in throno Románo. Regnavérunt in terra Romána.

4

A. Now we are going to review our objective endings in a different way. The tape will give a sentence all in Latin except for the object. In the pause, repeat the sentence, filling in the object with the right ending. Then listen to the right answer on the tape. Sample: María habuit a lamb. María habuit agnum. Ready now: María vidit the lamb. María vidit the lambs. Columbus habuit a ship. Columbus habuit ships. Isabella dedit money. Columbus invenit America. Agni vidérunt the pig. Agni vidérunt the pigs. Porcus vidit the lamb. Porcus vidit the lambs. María vidit the sailor. María vidit the sailors. Nautae vidérunt the city. Nautae vidérunt the cities. Horatius vidit the bridge. Horatius vidit the bridges. Marcus amávit the girl. Marcus amávit the girls. Románi non amavérunt the king. Románi non amavérunt the kings. Románi amavérunt the truth. Románi amavérunt the truths. Pons non amávit the fire. Pons non amávit the fires.

B. Now to review our prepositions. The tape will give an English phrase, then the Latin preposition. Complete the translation of the phrase. Then listen to the correct answer on the tape. Sample: With the lamb. Cum …​. agno. — To the city. Ad …​. To school. Ad …​. With the king. Cum …​. With the girl. Cum …​. With Marcus. Cum …​. Before the city. Ante …​. Before the cities. Ante …​. Before the queen. Ante …​. Before the queens. Ante …​. To the cities. Ad …​. To the schools. Ad …​. He fell into the water. In …​. He remained in the water. In …​. Mary is in school. In …​. He is in the city. In …​. He came into the city. In …​.

C. The tape will give a verb form. If it gives singular, you repeat the same in the plural. If it gives plural, you repeat the same in the singular. Then listen to correct answer on tape. Sample: amávit, Answer: amavérunt. Another sample: amavérunt, Answer: amávit. — Dedit. Dixérunt. Fuit. Habuit. Invenérunt. Venit. Vidit. Amavérunt. Exclamávit. Remansérunt. Regnavérunt. Cécidit. Expulérunt. Iecérunt. Parábit. Stetérunt.

5

The tape will give an English phrase or sentence. Translate just the preposition and the word after it. Then listen to the right answer on the tape. Sample: With the lamb. Cum agno. With the lambs. With the queens. With the sailors. With the kings. With the king. With the ships. He was in the cities. He came into the cities. He remained in the water. He fell into the water. He was in the wars. He was in the forum. He came into the battles. He remained in the battles.

6

A. Listen to the following sentences. Then tell who saw, who conquered, etc. Then listen to correct answer on tape. Sample: Románi vidérunt Aequos. Answer: Románi. — Romános amávit rex. Regem amavérunt Románi. Amávit Romános rex. Agnos amávit María. Amávit Maríam agnus. Amavérunt Maríam agni. Amávit puellam Marcus. Amávit puella Marcum. Puellam Marcus amávit. Puellae Marcum amavérunt. Naves Columbum habuérunt. Habuit Columbus naves. Invénit agnus Maríam. Agnum María invénit. Invénit Maríam agnus. Regínam amávit porcus. Amávit regínam porcus. Regína porcum amávit. Regínas porci amavérunt. Nauta puellas amávit. Nautas puella amávit. Nautae puellas amavérunt. Amavérunt puellas nautae. Amavérunt puellae nautas.

B. The tape will give a sentence, all in Latin except for the subject. Repeat the sentence, filling in the subject, with the right ending. Then listen to right answer on tape. Sample: Mary habuit agnum. María habuit agnum. — The queen dedit pecuniam. The queens dedérunt pecuniam. Columbus invénit Américam. The sailors invenérunt Américam. The lamb invénit Maríam. The lambs invenérunt Maríam. The pigs vidérunt Marcum. The pig vidit Marcum. The king remansit in urbe. The kings remansérunt in urbe. The ships ad Américam venérunt. The ship ad Américam venit. The bridge cécidit in aquam. The bridges cicidérunt in aquam. The man remansit in aqua. The men remansérunt in aqua. The truth remansit cum Románis. The truths remansérunt cum Románis.

7

A. The tape will give a sentence, all in Latin except for one expression. Repeat the entire sentence in Latin. Then listen to the correct answer. — Románi amavérunt the army. Románi habuérunt armies. Nautae non fuérunt in the army. Nautae non fuérunt in the army. Senatóres fuérunt in the senate. Nautae non fuérunt in the senates. Galli non habuérunt senates. Románi habuérunt a senate. Marcus non invénit the day. Marcus non invénit the days. Marcus non invénit the thing. Marcus non invénit the things. Marcus venit cum the thing. Marcus venit cum the things. Tarquinius regnávit in primis days. Columbus fuit in América in primo day.

B. The tape will give first one sentence in Latin, then another of very similar meaning. Add to the second sentence a word in the ablative that will make it mean almost the same as the first sentence. Sample: Galli non habuérunt pecuniam. Galli non vicérunt…​ pecunia. — Galli non habuérunt naves. Galli non venérunt …​. Románi habuérunt fortitúdinem. Románi fuérunt magni …​. Galli etiam habuérunt fortitúdinem. Galli fuérunt magni …​. Galli non habuérunt ignem. Galli non cepérunt urbem …​. Ánseres habuérunt vocem magnam. Ánseres exclamavérunt …​. Románi fecérunt consilia. Románi fuérunt boni …​. Galli non fecérunt consilia. Galli fuérunt mali …​. Cincinnátus non habuit ignem. Cincinnátus non vicit …​. Cincinnátus non habuit pecuniam. Cincinnátus non vicit …​. Cincinnátus habuit fortitúdinem. Cincinnátus vicit …​. Columbus habuit naves. Columbus venit ad Américam …​. Galli habuérunt exércitus multos. Galli venérunt …​. Románi amavérunt pugnas. Románi boni fuérunt …​.

C. Now the tape will give the completed sentences of this last set. Translate each sentence.

8

Let us practice our objective endings: You will hear a Latin sentence with one expression in English. Repeat the whole sentence in Latin: María audívit the sailor. María audívit the sailors. Porci audivérunt the lamb. Porci audivérunt the lambs. Nautae vicérunt the king. Nautae vicérunt the kings. Regína vidit the senate. Regína vidit the senates. Exércitus habuit the thing. Exércitus habuit the things. Rex habuit power. Plebs scivit the law. Patricii scivérunt the laws. Now for some subject endings: The man venit in urbem. The men venérunt in urbem. The citizen fuit in senátu. The citizens fuérunt in senátu. The girl amávit nautas. The girls amavérunt nautas. The senate scivit leges. The day fuit malus.

Now for some practice, with prepositions: María venit into the city. María remansit in teh city. Ignis venit onto the bridge. Nautae venérunt to the queens. Porci fuérunt in the forum. Mílites fuérunt in the wars. Navis fuit in the sea. Naves fuérunt in the seas.

Now some ablatives without prepositions: Románi fuérunt boni at planning. Galli non venérunt in ships. Galli fuérunt magni in power. Románi non vicérunt by money. Románi fuérunt multi in number. Románi bella habuérunt in the first days. Galli non vicérunt by fire.

Now for a bit of a variety. Each sentence will have one expression in English — repeat the whole sentence in Latin: The queens audivérunt nautas. Mary amávit Marcum. María venit with the lamb. Senátus scivit the laws. Exércitus cepit the cities. Rex non remansit in the city. Rex non fuit bonus in planning. Senátus scivit the day. Senátus fuit bonus in the first days. Rex non amávit the truth. Románi fuérunt multi in number. Porci vidérunt the lambs. The lambs amavérunt porcos. Porci non fuérunt in the senate.

9

The tape will give first one sentence in Latin, then another that is similar except that you will need a word in it meaning “to hear, to do,” etc. Say the second sentence in Latin, with the word filled in: Sample: Marcus audívit Maríam. Marcus potuit Maríam …​. audíre. — Marcus amávit Maríam. Marcus voluit Maríam …​. Horatius cécidit in aquam. Hortatius voluit in aquam…​ Senátus creávit Dictatórem. Senátus voluit Dictatórem …​. Isabelle dedit pecuniam. Isabella potuit pecuniam …​. Románi cépérunt urbem. Románi potuérunt urbem …​. Agnus dixit baa. Agnus potuit baa …​. columbus habuit naves. Columbus voluit naves …​. Románi fecérunt naves. Románi potuérunt naves …​. Románi regem expulérunt. Románi voluérunt regem …​. Ánseres exclamavérunt. Ánseres potuérunt …​. Marcus fuit bonus. Marcus voluit bonus …​.

10

A. Again, the tape will give first one sentence in Latin, then another similar one, except that in it you will need a word meaning “to come, to see” etc. Repeat the second sentence with the word filled in. — Rex non remansit in urbe. Rex non potuit in urbe …​. Rex regnávit. Rex potuit …​. Románi paravérunt multa consilia. Románi voluérunt multa consilia …​. Exércitus venit in multa perícula. Exércitus voluit in multa perícula …​. Senátus misit exércitum in multa perícula. Senátus potuit exércitum …​. Columbus invénit Américam. Columbus voluit Américam …​. Románi iecérunt ignem. Románi voluérunt ignem …​. Senátus scivit multa consilia. Senátus potuit multa consilia …​. Senátus scripsit leges bonas. Senátus potuit leges bonas …​. Horátius stetit in ponte. Horátius potuit in ponte …​. Naves venérunt in mare. Naves voluérunt in mare …​. Marcus vidit Maríam. Marcus voluit Maríam …​.

B. To practice our neuter plurals, let us again use two sentences. In the first one, we will have the singular of a neuter noun — in the second fill in the same noun in the plural. Sample: Románi habuérunt bellum. Románi habuérunt multa…​ bella. — Senátus fecit consilium. Senátus fecit multa …​. Románi habuérunt forum. Románi habuérunt multa …​. Exércitus venit in perículum. Exércitus venit in multa …​. Naves venérunt in mare. Naves venérunt in multa …​. Románi habuérunt nomen bonum. Románi habuérunt multa bona …​. Cincinnátus non amávit bellum. Cincinnátus non amávit multa …​.

11

Note to teacher: Before taking section A., carry out the first parts of the exercise indicated in the manual for lesson 11, that is, explain grammatical gender, put up table of bonus on board, go through Exerceamus in the book and have them give the three facts about each pair (is it masc. fern, or neuter? is it singular or plural? is it nom., obj. or abl.?)

A. In each sentence, we will have a noun and an adjective — but each adjective will be given in two forms, one correct, one wrong. Repeat the noun with the correct form of the adjective. Then listen to the correct answer on the tape Sample: Agnus vidit porcum malum, malam. Answer: porcum malum. First, we will take just the objective endings. — María habuit scholam bonum, bonam. Románi non habuérunt scholas bonas, bonos. Agnus amávit porcos bonos, bonas. — L’orthographe de la terminaison n’est pas toujours la même: María vidit urbem bonam, bonum. María vidit urbes bonos, bonas. Columbus habuit navem bonam, bonum. Columbus habuit naves bonos, bonas. Columbus habuit natam bonam, bonum. Columbus habuit nautas bonos, bonas. Románi habuérunt bella multos, multa. Vidérunt perícula magnos, magna.

Now some subject endings: Regína bona, bonus venit. Regínae bonae, boni venérunt. Agni boni, bonae venérunt. Porci mala, mali venérunt. Perículum est magna, magnum. Nautae bonae, boni venérunt. Románi boni, bonae pugnavérunt. Cives multae, multi pugnavérunt. Véritas est bona, bonus. Ager est bonus, bonum. Agri sunt mali, mala.

Now some ablatives: María venit cum agno bona, bono. Venit cum agnis bonis, bonas. Fuit in schola bona, bono. Fuérunt in foro magna, magno. Fuérunt in perículis multa, multis. Venit cum cívibus bonibus, bonis. Exclamavérunt voce magna, magno. Exclamavérunt vocibus magnibus, magnis. Fuérunt in urbibus magnas, magnis.

B. Now we shall have some sentences in which you should add the proper form of bonus to the object. Sample: Vidit agnum…​ bonum. — Vidit agnos…​ Vidit terram…​ Vidit terras…​ Vidit regínam…​ Vidit regínas…​ Vidit porcum…​ Vidit porcos…​ Vidit virum…​ Vidit viros…​ Vidit agros…​ Vidit agrum…​ Vidit exércitum…​ Vidit exercitus…​ Vidit nautam…​ Vidit nautas…​ Vidit regem…​ Vidit reges…​ Vidit urbem…​ Vidit urbes…​ Vidit legem…​ Vidit leges…​ Vidit potestatem…​ Vidit navem…​ Vidit naves…​

C. Now more of the same, but we will use the ablative. — Venit cum agno…​ Venit cum agnis…​ Fuit in terra…​ Fuit in terris…​ Venit cum regína…​ Venit cum regínis…​ Venit cum porco…​ Venit cum porcis…​ Venit cum viro…​ Venit cum viris…​ Fuit in agro…​ Fuit in agris…​ Fuit in exércitu…​ Fuit in exercítibus…​ Venit cum nauta…​ Venit cum nautis…​ Venit cum rege…​ Venit cum régibus…​ Fuit in urbe…​ Fuit in úrbibus…​ Venit cum lege…​ Venit cum légibus…​ Venit cum potestáte…​ Venit cum potestátibus…​ Venit in navi…​ Venit in návibus.

D. Now in the nominative: In urbe est agnus…​ Sunt agni…​ Est regína…​ Sunt regínae…​ Est porcus…​ Sunt porci…​ Est vir…​ Sunt viri…​ Est ager…​ Sunt agri…​ Est exércitus…​ Sunt exércitus…​ Est nauta…​ Sunt nautae…​ Est rex…​ Sunt reges…​ Est lex…​ Sunt leges…​ Est potestas…​ Sunt potestátes…​ Est navis…​ Sunt naves…​ Terra est…​ Terrae sunt…​ Urbs est…​ Urbes sunt…​

12

Repeat all the tape exercises of lesson 11.

13

A. In each sentence, we will have a noun and an adjective — but each adjective will be given in two forms, one correct, one wrong. Repeat the noun with the correct form of the adjective. Then listen to the correct answer — Sample: Agnus vidit porcum fortis fortem. Answer: porcum fortem. — First, the objective endings: — Hannibal habuit mílites acres, acros. Habuit mílitem acre acrem. Vidit cives ferocos feróces. Amavérunt pugnam acram acrem. Amávit pugnas acres acras. Habuit odium acre acrem. Habuérunt bella foroca ferocia. Vidérunt mare ferox feroce. Vidérunt ignem acrum acrem. Habuérunt mílites fortos fortes. Vidit mílitem fortem forte.

B. Now, some subject endings: Mílites fuérunt acres acri. Marcus fuit fortes fortis. Exércitus fuit acer acris. Regína fuit forocis ferox. Regínae fuérunt ferocae feróces. Miles fuit ferox ferocis.

C. Now some ablatives: Marcus venit cum milítibus fórtibus fortis. María venit cum nauta forti forta. Marcus fuit in exércitu ferocu feróci. Mílites fuérunt in exércitibus acris ácribus. Roma fuit magna milítibus fórtibus fortis.

D. Now for some sentences all in Latin except for an adjective. Repeat the sentence, putting the adjective into Latin: Vidit regem brave. Answer: Vidit regem fortem. — Vidit reges brave. Vidit cives sharp. Vidit civem sharp. Vidit agnum brave. Vidit porcos brave. Vidit bellum sharp. Vidit bella sharp. Vidit mare sharp. Vidit maria sharp. Vidit exércitum brave. Vidit exércitus brave. Vidit virum brave. Vidit viros brave. Vidit nautam sharp. Vidit nautas shap. Vidit regem fierce. Vidit reges fierce. Vidit civem fierce. Vidit cives fierce. Vidit agnum fierce. Vidit porcos fierce. Vidit bellum fierce. Vidit bella fierce. Vidit mare fierce. Vidit maria fierce. Vidit exércitum fierce. Vidit exércitus fierce. Vidit virum fierce. Vidit viros fierce. Vidit nautam fierce. Vidit nautas fierce.

E. Now the same, but using the ablative: Venit cum rege brave. Venit cum régibus brave. Venit cum mílite sharp. Venit cum milítibus shap. Venit cum agno fierce. Venit cum porcis fierce. Fuit in bello sharp. Fuit in bellis sharp. Fuit in mari fierce. Fuit in máribus fierce. Fuit in exércitu sharp. Fuit in exercítibus sharp. Venit cum viro brave. Venit cum viris brave. Venit cum nauta sharp. Venit cum nautis sharp.

F. Now for the nominative: In urbe est rex brave. Sunt reges brave. Est civis sharp. Sunt cives sharp. Est agnus fierce. Sunt porci fierce. Est bellum sharp. Sunt bella sharp. Mare est fierce. Maria sunt fierce. Exércitus est sharp. Exércitus sunt sharp. Viri sunt brave. Vir est brave. Nautae sunt sharp. Nauta est sharp.

14

Note to teacher: There are 25 passive participles in this table. For tape work, we shall use the first 9 in this lesson, then 8 more each in the next two lessons.

A. Again we will work with pairs of sentences, both meaning the same. The tape will give the first of the pair, and part of the second. You complete the second, then listen for the answer. Sample: María vidit Marcum. Marcus…​ visus est. — María amábit Marcum. Marcus …​. Porcus audívit agnum. Agnus …​. Mílites accepérunt imperatórem. Imperátor …​. María cepit Marcum. Marcus …​. Senátus Dictatórem creávit. Dictátor …​. Marcus dedit porcum. Porcus …​. Románi regem expulérunt. Rex …​. But now, we must begin to watch for different genders on the participles — you cannot use amátus with María! — Marcus amábit Maríam. María …​. Imperátor dedit aquam. Aqua …​. Agnus dixit baa. Baa …​. Carthágo dedit aurum. Aurum …​. Hánnibal cepit urbem. Urbs …​. Rex accépit pecuniam. Pecunia …​.

Now the tape will give both parts of each sentence in Latin. Translate each part.

B. Here are some sentences, with part in English. Repeat the whole sentence in Latin. But notice that some of these are passive, others are active. Sample: Exércitus Románus was captured. Answer: Exércitus Románus captus est. — Imperátor Púnicus captured exercitum. Mary amata est. Marcus loved Maríam. Marcus was loved. María loved Marcum. Porcus was heared. Agnus heared porcum. Agnus etiam was heard. Porcus heard agnos. Pecunia was given. Regína gave pecuniam.

15

A. Here are more pairs of sentences like those we had yesterday. Románi misérunt Marcum. Marcus …​. Posuérunt aurum in naves. Aurum …​. Románi gessérunt bellum. Bellum …​. Nautae fecérunt naves. Naves …​. Mílites habuérunt cibum. Cibus …​. Columbus invénit Américam. América …​. Nautae paravérunt naves. Naves …​. Georgius Washington iecit pecuniam. Pecunia …​.

B. Now let us fill out our sentences a bit more. How do we say by whom? A quo. So the tape will make a statement, then ask a question — then you answer it in Latin, making use of the passive form and a phrase with a or ab, such as A Marco. Here is a sample: Marcus amávit Maríam. A quo est María amata? Answer: María amata est a Marco. — Senátus misit legátos. A quo sunt legáti missi? Georgius Washington iecit pecuniam. A quo est pecunia iacta? Imperátor parávit naves. A quo sunt naves parátae? Columbus invénit Américam. A quo est América inventa? Agnus habuit cibum. A quo est cibus hábitus? Marcus fecit navem. A quo est navis facta? Imperátor gessit bellum. A quo est bellum gestum? Marcus posuit aurum in naves. A quo est aurum pósitum?

Now the tape will give the 1st and 3rd parts of each example from the last group. Translate them.

16

Here are some pairs of sentences. The first time you go over them, just fill in the verb in the second sentence, without adding a phrase with ab. The second time around, give both the passive verb and the phrase: Sample: María amávit agnum. Answer: Agnus amátus est. — add second time: a María. — Románi promisérunt pacem. Pax …​. Legáti rogavérunt Cincinnátum. Cincinnátus …​. Plebs scivit legem. Lex …​. Senatóres scripsérunt legem. Lex …​. Horatius Romam servávit. Roma …​. Porci vidérunt agnum. Agnus …​. Hánnibal vicit Sempronium. Sempronius …​. Senátus fecit consilia bona. Bona consilia …​. Púnici gessérunt bella acria. Acria bella …​. Senátus misit legátos feróces. Legáti feróces …​. Mílites acres habuérunt cibos. Cibi …​. Senátus iecit multam pecuniam. Multa pecunia …​. Nautae fortes invenérunt Américam. América …​. Nauta bonus amávit Maríam. María …​. Marcus audívit porcos malos. Porci mali …​. Isabella dedit pecuniam multam. Multa pecunia …​. Mílites fortes accepérunt cibum. Cibus …​.

Now the tape will give both the active and the passive with agent. Translate both forms.

17

A. Listen to the sentence. It begins with a postquam, quia, or quando clause. Turn these clauses into ablative absolutes. Sample: Postquam agnus visus est, María laeta fuit. Answer: Agno viso…​ (do not bother to repeat rest of sentence) — tape will omit it too after the first one). — Postquam pax facta est, mílites laeti fuérunt. Postquam Saguntum captum est. Postquam Marcus missus est. Postquam agnus expulsus est. Postquam porci capti sunt. Postquam frumentum pósitum est in naves. Postquam Roma serváta est. Postquam Fabius rogátus est. Postquam América inventa est. Postquam pecunia iacta est trans Potomac. Postquam urbs capta est. Postquam agnus visus est. Postquam agni visi sunt. Postquam Románi victi sunt. Quia pax facta est. Quia Sguntum captum est. Quia Scipio missus est. Quia agnus expulsus est. Quia porci capti sunt. Quia frumentum pósitum est in naves. Quia Roma serváta est. Quia Fabius rogátus est. Quia América inventa est. Quando pecunia iacta est. Quando urbs capta est. Quando agni visi sunt. Quando Románi victi sunt.

B. Here are some very similar examples, but you will need to rearrange a bit more. Sample: Quia Maríam vidit, Marcus laetus fuit. Answer: María visa…​ — Quia pecuniam accepérunt, mílites laeti fuérunt. Quia Púnicos vicérunt. Quia navem cepérunt. Quia naves cepérunt. Quia Fabium vidérunt. Quia navem servavérunt. Quia naves servavérunt. Quia dictatórem accepérunt. Quia Saguntum cepérunt. Quia Marcum audivérunt. Quia Fabium invenérunt. Quia Maríam servavérunt. Quia agnum iecérunt in flumen. Quia Tarquinium expulérunt. Quia Etruscos expulérunt. Quia frumentum posuérunt in naves.

Now the tape will give the Latin answers to this last set. Translate each absolute in two ways, first, in the crude form, e.g., “Mary having been seen.” then in any of the smoother forms.

C. Note to teacher: Use these on board first — then, on tape also.-- Here are some sentences in which we cannot use an ablative absolute. How do we know? First, we try to change a clause into the “having been“ form in English. Then we look at the noun in the phrase — if it means the same person or thing as the subject or object of the body of the sentence, we must not put the phrase into the ablative. INSTEAD, PUT IT INTO NOMINATIVE OR OBJECTIVE, and so let it replace the subject or object.

1. After they captured Marcus, the soldiers sent him to the general. — Marcus having been captured. — They sent Marcus having been captured to the general. Misérunt Marcum captum ad imperatórem. 2. After he saw Mary, Marcus loved her. — Mary having been seen — Marcus loved Mary having been seen. Marcus amávit Maríam visam. 3. After Scipio saw Hannibal, he conquered him.-- Hannibal having been seen — Scipio conquered Hannibal having been seen. —  Scipio vicit Hanníbalem visum. 4. After they captured Marcus, he was sent to the general — Marcus having been captured. — Marcus having been captured was sent to the general. — Marcus captus missus est. 5. After Mary was seen, she was loved by Marcus — Mary having been seen — Mary having been seen was loved by Marcus. — María visa amáta est a Marco. 6. After Hannibal was seen by Scipio, he was conquered. — Hannibal having been seen — Hannibal having been seen was conquered by Scipio. — Hánnibal visus victus est a Scipióne.

18

You will now hear two short sentences. They tell us whose something is. Incidentally, the word for Whose? is: Cuius? or, in plural: Quorum or Quarum? The second sentence is always a question. After it we answer, and use a possessive case. Sample: A María amátus est agnus. Cuius agnus est? Aanswer: Maríae agnus est. — A columbo accepta est pecunia. Cuius pecunia est? A Senátu hábita est potestas. Cuius potestas est? A nautis factae sunt naves. Quorum naves sunt? A milítibus pósitum est aurum. Quorum aurum est? A Románis capta est urbs? Quorum urbs est? A Georgio Washington iacta est pecunia. Cuius pecunia est? Ab imperatóre consilium factum est. Cuius consilium est? A rege exércitus missus est. Cuius exércitus est? A nauta puella amáta est. Cuius puella est? A cívibus leges factae sunt. Quorum leges sunt? Ab imperatóribus consilia facta su nt. Quorum consilia sunt? Naves habuérunt imperatóres. Quorum imperatóres sunt? — And now, a little variety. Sample: Quid odit agnus? Porcum odit agnus. Dites alors: Habuit odium porci. — Quid odit nauta? Porcos odit nauta. Habuit odium…​ Quid odit Marcus? Agnum odit Marcus. Habuit odium…​ Quid odit María? Scholam odit María. Habuit odium…​ Quid odit pons? Ignem odit pons. Habuit odium…​ Quid odit vir malus? Veritátem odit vir malus. Habuit odium…​ Quid odérunt cives? Bellum odérunt cives. Habuérunt odium…​ Quid odit rex? Cives odit rex. Habuit odium…​ Quid odit ignis? Aquam odit ignis. Habuit odium…​

19

A. Listen to the sentence. Then repeat it, except that you will substitute the proper form of ille for the object. Sample: Marcus vidit Maríam. Answer: Marcus vidit illam. — Hánnibal non vicit Romam. Columbus accépit pecuniam. Senátus habuit potestátem. Nautae fecérunt naves. Senátus fecit consilium. Marcus odit agnum. Cives odérunt bella. Marcus vidit nautas. Marcus amávit porcos. Imperátor fecit consilia.

Now the same, but substitute ille for the subject: Marcus vidit Maríam. Columbus accépit pecuniam. Navis accépit nautas. Naves fuérunt in mari. Porci vidérunt agnum. Mare fuit ferox. Consilia sunt bona. Leges sunt bonae. Schola est magna.

Now substitute ille for nouns in the ablative, even if the nouns come in an ablative absolute. Venit cum Columbo. Venérunt cum milítibus. Agnus amátus est a María. Legáti missi sunt a senátu. Cibus acceptus est a milítibus. Mílites sunt in insidiis. Agni sunt in agris. Viri boni sunt in senátu. Véritas est in fábula. Navis est in mari. Naves sunt in máribus. Pecunia accepta …​ Agno viso …​ Sagunto capto …​ Consiliis acceptis …​ Milítibus vocátis …​ Responso audíto …​ Oratióne hábita …​ Románis victis …​

B. Add ille to every noun in the following sentences. Sample: Mílites vidérunt agnos. Answer: Illi mílites vidérunt illos agnos. — Vidérunt frumentum. Mílites venérunt. Feminae etiam venérunt. Locus est magnus. Frumentum est bonum. Accepérunt cibos. Vidérunt nautam. Etiam vidérunt regínam. Venérunt cum nautis. Regína etiam venit. Amavérunt leges. Venérunt cum regína. Fuérunt in urbe. Pugnavérunt in bello.

20

A. Here are some clauses with postquam, quia, quando. Change them to ablative absolutes, but instead of the noun, use the proper form of ille. Sample: Postquam agnus visus est …​ Answer: Illo viso. — Quia responsum acceptum est …​ Postquam capilli dati sunt …​ Quia pars victa est …​ Quia nemo vocátus est …​ Quia locus delétus est …​ Postquam schola aedificata est …​ Quia feminam vidérunt …​ Quia locum invenérunt …​ Quia consilia fecérunt …​ Quando frumentum vidérunt …​ Quando insidias invenérunt …​ Quia iter fecérunt …​ Quia oratiónem habuit …​

B. How do you say: Mary’s place. Part of the soldiers. The power of the citizens. The hair of the women. The speech of Marcus. The answer of the men. Hatred of the law. The end of the story. The power of the senate. The end of the days. The end of the thing. The men of the armies.

21

A. Add hic to every noun in the following sentences. Sample: Mílites vidérunt agnos. Answer: Hi mílites vidérunt hos agnos. — Vidérunt frumentum. Senatóres venérunt. Féminae etiam venérunt. Servus est magnus. Frumentum est bonum. Accepérunt servos. Vidérunt nautam. Etiam vidérunt regínam. Venérunt cum senatóribus. Regína etiam venit. Amavérunt naves. Venérunt cum regína. Fuérunt in urbe. Pugnavérunt in bello.

Substitute hic for the object: Sample: Marcus vidit Maríam. Answer: Marcus vidit hanc. — Marcus vidit regínam. Senatóres accepérunt pecuniam. Marcus habuit misericordiam. Románi tenuérunt urbes. Senátus proposuit consilium. María amávit agnum. Servi odérunt bella. Servus interfécit nautas. Senatóres amavérunt porcos. Imperátor fecit consilia.

Now substitute hic for the subject. Servus vidit Marcum. Navis accépit frumentum. Féminae fuérunt in navibus. Servi vidérunt porcum. Bellum fuit ferox. Consilia erant magna. Veritátes erant magnae. Regína est magna.

Now substitute hic for nouns in the ablative, even if the nouns come in an abl. abs. Venit cum servo. Venérunt cum senatóribus. Marcus interfectus est a regína. Legáti missi sunt a senátu. Misericordia accepta est a milítibus. Servi erant in insidiis. Senatóres erant in agris. Servo viso…​ Regína interfecta…​ Marco capto…​ Equítibus acceptis…​ Senatóribus interfectis…​ Agno audíto…​ Oratióne hábita…​ Consiliis propósitis…​

B. For this practise we will need to use two new words: Heri, meaning yesterday; and antea, meaning before. We will use two part sentences. In the first part we hear that something happened to someone yesterday, in the second part we fill in the form to say that it happened to someone else even before. Sample: Heri Paulus interfectus est; antea Marcus…​ Answer: interfectus erat. — Heri Paulus expulsus est; antea…​ Heri hoc consilium propósitum est; antea illud consilium…​ Heri Etrusci victi sunt; antea Galli…​ Heri haec regína audíta est; antea illa regína…​ Heri hae naves factae sunt; antea illae naves…​ Heri hi visi sunt; antea illi…​ Heri haec promissa sunt; antea illa…​

Now the tape will give the completed forms of the last set of sentences. Translate them.

22

For this practice we will need to use again the word heri from yesterday meaning “yesterday”, and also ho die, meaning “today”. Again we will have two part sentences, with the second part to be filled in with the present form of a verb. Sample: Heri María amávit Marcum; hodie María Paulum…​ Answer: amat. — Heri Marcus hoc dixit; hodie illud…​ Heri Marcus pecuniam habuit; hodie pecuniam non…​ Heri Paulus oratiónem habuit; hodie Marcus oratiónem…​ Heri agnus in schola exclamávit; hodie porcus…​ Heri senátus creávit Cincinnatum dictatórem; hodie senátus Marcum dictatórem…​ Heri senátus misit Paulum; hodie senátus Marcum…​ Heri Marcus mostrávit Maríam; hodie Marcus regínam…​ Heri senátus expulit Marcum; hodie senátus Paulum…​ Heri imperátor delévit hoc; hodie imperátor illud…​ Heri hic vocávit Marcum; hodie ille Marcum…​ Heri imperátor iussit Marcum discédere; hodie Paulum discédere…​ Heri nauta aedificávit hanc navem; hodie nauta illam navem…​ Heri imperátor Etruscos vidit; hodie imperátor Gallos…​

23

This will be the same sort of practice as we had in the last lesson, but today we will use plurals. — Heri Románi expulérunt Tarquinium; hodie Románi Gallos…​ Heri senatóres audivérunt Marcum; hodie senatóres Paulum…​ Heri Románi Fabium amavérunt; hodie Románi Scipiónem…​ Heri mílites Gallos vidérunt; hodie mílites Etruscos…​ Heri nautae aurum accepérunt; hodie nautae frumentum…​ Heri mílites Marcum cepérunt; hodie mílites Paulum…​ Heri hi senatóres pacem promisérunt; hodie hi bellum…​ Heri mílites illum interfecérunt; hodie mílites hunc…​ Heri cives pacem voluérunt; hodie bellum…​ Heri senatóres illud proposuérunt; hodie senatóres hoc…​ Heri illi cecidérunt; hodie hi…​ Heri hi remansérunt; hodie illi…​ Heri reges regnavérunt; hodie cónsules…​ Heri féminae capillos dedérunt; hodie féminae cibos…​

24

A. Here are some pairs of sentences. The first of a pair uses pluperfect passive: in the second, the tables are turned — and so fill in a present active. Again we will use antea — before. Sample: Antea Románi expulsi erant a Gallis; hodie Románi Gallos…​ Answer: expellunt. — Antea Marcus servátus erat a Paulo; hodie Marcus Paulum…​ Antea multi Románi interfecti erant a Gallis; hodie Románi Gallos…​ Antea hi viri vocáti erant a nautis; hodie nautas…​ Antea exércitus Románus delétus erat ab Hanníbale; hodie exércitus Románus Hanníbalem…​ Antea hic rex depósitus erat a Marco; hodie hic rex Marcum…​ Antea haec puella missa erat a Marco; hodie haec puella Marcum…​ Antea nautae tenti erant a milítibus; hodie mílites nautae…​ Antea Marcus captus erat a Gallis; hodie Marcus Gallos…​ Antea María amáta erat a Marco; hodie María Marcum…​ Antea hi agni inventi erant a porcis; hodie hi agni porcos…​ Antea Marcus in flumen iactus erat a Paulo; hodie Marcus Paulum in flumen…​ Antea Románi victi erant a Carthaginiénsibus; hodie Románi Carthaginienses…​

Now the tape will give the completedforms of this last set of sentences. Translate them.

B. Add the proper form of hic to the first noun in the following sentences: Sample: Exemple: Románi expulsi Gallos vincunt. Answer: Hi Románi expulsi Gallos vincunt. Románi amant aurum. Auro accepto, laetus erat. Filius amat patrem. Dubium est magnum. Servis vocátis, laetus erat. Vir vocat senatórem. Dubia sunt magna. A senatóribus vocátus erat. Caput est cálidum. Consuetúdo erat bona. Oratiónem audívit. Venérunt návibus. Vicérunt insidiis.

25

A. Here are some three part sentences. In the second, substitute the proper form of is for the object or for a word in the ablative. In the third substitute the proper form of idem. Sample: Marcus vidit Caésarem. Marcus vidit eum. Paulus vidit eundem. — Marcus vocávit Maríam. Marcus vocávit…​ Paulus vocávit…​ Marcus aedíficat navem. Marcus aedíficat…​ Paulus aedificat…​ Marcus infundit aurum. Marcus infundit…​ Paulus infundit…​ Marcus punit filium. Marcus punit…​ Paulus punit…​ Marcus evádit ex schola. Marcus evádit ex…​ Paulus evádit ex…​ Marcus rapit frumentum. Marcus rapit…​ Paulus rapit…​ Marcus evádit cum María. Marcus evádit cum…​ Paulus evádit cum…​ Marcus debet esse in foro. Marcus debet esse in…​ Paulus debet esse in…​ Marcus delévit consuetúdinem. Marcus delévit…​ Paulus delévit. María discessit cum Marco. María discessit cum…​ Paulus discessit cum…​ Marcus interfécit équites. Marcus interfécit…​ Paulus interfécit…​ Marcus fregit cápita. Marcus fregit…​ Paulus fregit…​ Marcus návigat cum senatóribus. Marcus návigat…​ Paulus návigat…​ Marcus fuit in itinéribus. Marcus fuit in…​ Paulus fuit in…​ Marcus delévit potestátes. Marcus delévit…​ Paulus delévit…​ Marcus fuit in návibus. Marcus fuit in…​ Paulus fuit in…​

B. Now for more three part sentences, but this time, substitute is and idem for the subject. We will put the subject last, for convenience in fill-ins. Sample: Maríam vidit Marcus. Maríam vidit is. Maríam vidit idem. — Paulum tenuit Marcus. Paulum tenuit…​ Paulum tenuit…​ Pecuniam rapiunt mílites. Pecuniam rapiunt…​ Pecuniam rapiunt…​ Ex urbe discessit fémina. Ex urbe discessit…​ Ex urbe discessit…​ Ignem timuérunt puellae. Ignem timuérunt…​ Ignem timuérunt…​ Inventum est frumentum. Inventum est…​ Inventum est…​ Facta sunt consilia. Facta sunt…​ Facta sunt…​ Audíta est oratio. Audíta est…​ Audíta est…​ In urbem venérunt viri. In urbem venérunt…​ In urbem venérunt…​

26

Here are some two part sentences, but we shall go over each pair twice — the second time around, you repeat the second part, but substitute a relative for the first noun. Sample: Marcus vidit Maríam. María habuit agnum. Marcus vidit Maríam…​ Answer: quae habuit agnum. Naturellement, le pronom relatif ne sera pas toujours le sujet. Watch to see what case the noun is that turns into the relative! — Marcus habuit servum. Servus erat bonus. Marcus habuit servum…​ Marcus punívit filium. Filius erat malus. Marcus punívit filium…​ Marcus vocávit Maríam. Maríam amávit agnus. Marcus vocávit Maríam…​ Marcus proposuit consilium. Consilium amávit senátus. Marcus proposuit consilium…​ Marcus evásit ex urbe. Urbs erat in Italia. Marcus evásit ex urbe…​ Marcus evádit ex urbe. In urbe erat María. Marcus evádit ex urbe in…​ Marcus monstrávit mílites. Mílites interfécerat Hánnibal. Marcus monstrávit mílites…​ Nautae amavérunt naves. Návibus in Italiam vénerant. Nautae amavérunt naves…​ Marcus discessit cum milítibus. Cum milítibus vénerat. Marcus discessit cum milítibus cum…​ Marcus delévit urbes. Urbes odit. Marcus delévit urbes…​ Marcus vidit omnia flúmina. Flúmina erant in Italia. Marcus vidit omnia flúmina…​ Marcus amávit omnes puellas. Puellae erant in schola. Marcus amávit omnes puellas…​ María vocávit Marcum. Marcum in schola vidit. María vocávit Marcum…​ Marcus vicit in omnibus bellis. In bellis pugnávit. Marcus vicit in omnibus bellis in…​ Mithridátes infudit aurum. Aurum erat cálidum. Mithridátes infudit aurum…​ Senátus expulit viros. Viri mali erant. Senátus expulit viros…​ Senátus audívit responsa. Responsa fecit Marcus. Senátus audívit responsa…​ Marcus misit servum. Cum servo vénerat. Marcus misit servum cum…​ Horatius odit flumen. In flúmine erat. Horatius odit flumen in…​

27

A. Here are some two part sentences. In the second sentence, substitute the proper form of quidam for the first noun, whatever case it may be in. Sample: Non vidérunt Marcum. Vidérunt alium…​ Answer: quendam. Románi non fugérunt. Fugérunt alii…​ María non timuit. Timuit alia…​ Non vicérunt Gallos. Vicérunt alios…​ Naves Románae non sunt raptae. Raptae sunt aliae…​ Non evasérunt ex hac urbe. Evasérunt ex alia…​ Non delevérunt has urbes. Delevérunt alias…​ Non propónunt haec consilia. Propónunt alia…​ Non promittunt hoc auxilium. Promittunt aliud…​ Hoc responsum non est audítum. Audítum est aliud…​ Marcus non abest. Abest alius…​ Non amávit Maríam. Amávit aliam…​ Non cum Marco navigávit. Navigávit cum alio…​ Non fecit iter cum his nautis. Fecit iter cum aliis…​ Non haec bella magna fuérunt. Fuérunt magna alia…​ Non fuérunt in his urbibus. Fuérunt in aliis…​ Véritas non est in hoc responso. Véritas est in alio…​

B. Here are some English sentences containing words like himself, herself, themselves, etc. Some of them require ipse in Latin, others require se. After hearing each sentence, give the correct Latin word, in the right form. Sample: He saw Marcus himself. Answer: ipsum. — Marcus himself came. Mary herself came. The Romans themselves departed. The forum itself was captured. The sailors themselves sailed. The women themselves broke it. The answers themselves were not true. Mary came herself. The Romans wanted it themselves. The sailors were there themselves. The women broke it themselves. They saw Mary herself. She killed Caesar himself. He punished the senators themselves. He destroyed the cities themselves. He knew the answers themselves. They expelled Cato himself. He came with Mary herself.

C. Here are some more sentences for ipse and se — but they are a bit mixed now — Marcus himself came. Marcus came himself. Marcus saw himself. She hated herself. She made it herself. He worked for himself. She came with Caesar himself. He loves himself. He loves her himself. He himself loves her.

28

Repeat the exercises of lessons 25, 26, 27.

29

A. Here are some two part sentences. In the first we will have an active form. In the second, fill in the proper passive form. Then translate the filled in sentences. Sample: Marcus vincit. Paulus…​ Answer: vincitur. — Roma delet Cartháginem. Cartágo…​ Ille amat Maríam. María ipsa…​ Mithridátes infundit aurum. Aurum…​ Marcus ipse frangit vinculum. Vinculum…​ Hic punit filium. Ille fillius…​ Marcus capit eundem virum. Idem vir…​ Agnus audit porcum. Porcus ipse…​ Quidam viri depónunt reges. Reges…​ Iidem viri tenent mílites. Mílites…​ Nautae boni rogant illos. Illi…​ Senatóres audiunt haec. Haec a senatóribus…​ María áccipit praemia. Praemia a María…​ Agni audiunt porcos. Porci ab agnis…​ Románi perícula vident. Perícula a Románis…​ Magister ducit eos in scholam. Ei in scholam…​ Magister punit eosdem. Eidem a magistro…​ Marcus sperat consulátum. Consulátus a Marco…​ María promittit amórem. Amor a María…​ Marcus non timet proelium. Proelium a Marco non…​ Vir malus se interficit. Vir malus a se ipso…​

B. Here are some more two part sentences. In the first, we have an active infinitive. In the second, fill in a passive infinitive. Then translate the filled in sentences. Sample: Marcus vult amáre Maríam. María vult…​ Answer: amári. — Senátus non vult revocáre Sullam. Sulla non vult…​ Magister potest audíre Marcum. Marcus potest…​ Cincinnátus debet serváre Romam. Roma debet…​ Scipio potest delére urbem. Urbs potest…​ Caesar ipse potest gérere bellum. Bellum potest…​ Magister debet puníre eandem puellam. Eadem puellam debet…​ María amat vidére eum. Is amat…​ Románi possunt regem expéllere. Rex a Románis potest…​ Mílites debent has urbes cápere. Hae urbes debent…​ Marcus potest habére potestátem. Potestas a Marco potest…​ Senátus debet revocáre quosdam. Quidam debent a senátu…​

30

A. Here are some two part sentences. In the second part, fill in a dative. Sample: María áccipit pecuniam. Pecunia datur…​ Answer: Maríae. — Caesar audit hoc. Hoc dícitur…​ Marcus vidit urbem. Urbs monstrátur. Regína áccipit consilium. Consilium datur…​ Paúperes accipiunt agros. Agri dantur…​ Puellae vident naves. Naves monstrantur…​ Servi sperant pecuniam. Pecuniam promíttitur…​ Senátus audit haec. Haec explicantur…​ Exércitus accipiunt praemia. Praemia dantur…​ Nautae audiunt haec. Haec dicuntur…​ Reges accipiunt cibum. Cibus datur…​ Viri vident proelia. Proelia monstrantur…​

B. Here are some sentences, each with a to phrase. But in some the dative is needed, in others, ad with the objective. Repeat the whole sentence in Latin — Redeunt to the city. Monstrant urbem to Mary. Veniunt to the general. Explicant rem to the general. Dicunt veritátem to the king. Iter faciunt to the king. Révocant Hanníbalem to Africa. Ducunt Maríam to school. Monstrant haec to the teacher. Inimícus est to Caesar. Navigant to the city. Dant pecuniam to the city.

31

A. Here are some two part sentences of similar meaning except that in second, we want to use another form of the deponent verb. Sample: María voluit sequi. Answer: María secuta est. Marcus voluit sequi. Marcus…​ Románi voluérunt sequi. Románi…​ Méminae voluérunt sequi. Féminae…​ Marcus potuit loqui. Marcus…​ María potuit loqui. María…​ Flumen non potuit loqui. Flumen non…​ Flúmina non potuérunt loqui. Flúmina non…​ Porci potuérunt loqui. Porci…​ Nautae potuérunt loqui. Nautae…​ Féminae potuérunt loqui. Féminae…​ Marcus debuit conári. Marcus…​ María debuit conári. María…​ Féminae debuérunt conári. Féminae…​ Mílites debuérunt conári. Mílites…​ — And now let us do a few with pluperfects: Marcus volúerat sequi. Marcus…​ Románi volúerant sequi. Románi…​ Féminae volúerant sequi. Féminae…​ Marcus potúerat loqui. Marcus…​ María potúerat loqui. María…​ Flumen non potúerat loqui. Flumen non…​ Flúmina non potúerant loqui. Flúmina non…​ Nautae potúerant loqui. Nautae…​ Féminae potúerant loqui. Féminae…​ Mílites volúerant conári. Mílites…​

B. How do you say that a man is going: To Rome. To Brundisium. To Capua. To Carthage. Is there any difference if you say: To Italy. To the province. To the river. To the ships. What difference is there if we say someone gave money: To Marcus. To Mary. To Caesar. And now, let us mix them up a bit-- in each sentence, translate only the phrase with to: He came to Rome. He came to Italy. He gave gold to Rome. He came to Caesar. He came to Brundisium. He gave money to Caesar. He gave money to Mary. He came to the province. He spoke to Caesar. He gave help to Caesar. He came to Caesar.

C. How do you say that a man is coming: From Rome. From Brundisium. From Capua. From Carthage. Is there any difference if you say: From Italy. From the province. From the river. From the ships.

D. Now let us talk about the vicinity. How do you say someone is coming or going: Sample: From the vicinity of Rome: Answer: A Roma. From the vicinity of Brundisium. From the vicinity of Capua. From the vicinity of Carthage. To the vicinity of Rome. To the vicinity of Brundisium. To the vicinity of Capua. To the vicinity of Carthage.

32

Repeat the exercises of the last three lessons.

33

Here are some two part sentences. In the second, use an imperfect instead of the compound verb form. Sample: María volébat veníre. Answer: María veniébat. — Marcus volébat amáre. Marcus…​ Mílites volébant exspectáre. Mílites…​ Fabius póterat eum tenére. Fabius eum…​ Mílites póterant urbes delére. Mílites urbes…​ Nuntii volébant hoc ágere. Nuntii hoc…​ Soror volébat hoc pétere. Soror hoc…​ Nautae volébant fúgere. Nautae…​ Dux non volébat fúgere. Dux non…​ Cives volébant portas aperíre. Cives portas…​ Porcus non volébat agnum audíre. Porcus agnum non…​ Caesar póterat oppidum cápere. Caesar oppidum…​ Sempronius non póterat perículum praevidére. Sempronius perículum non…​ Senatóres non volébant Galliam divídere. Senatóres Galliam non…​ Agnus non póterat putáre. Agnus non…​ Nemo póterat haec explicáre. Nemo haec…​ Mílites non volébant se recípere. Mílites se non…​ Marcus volébat Maríam in matrimonium dúcere. Marcus Maríam in matrimonium…​

34

A. Here are some two part sentences. In the second, use an imperfect instead of the compound verb form. Sample: María volébat amári. Answer: María amabátur. Notice too that deponent verbs fit in here: Sample: María volut sequi. María sequebátur. — Marcus debébat monéri. Marcus…​ Marcus póterat reverti. Marcus…​ María póterat loqui. María…​ Porta non volébat aperíri. Porta non…​ Scriptor non volébat accusári. Scriptor non…​ Gladius non póterat frangi. Gladius non…​ Dux non volébat duci. Dux non…​ Porci non volébant mori. Porci non…​ Mílites non volébant proficisci. Mílites non…​ Nautae non póterant mitti. Nautae non…​ Équites debébant monéri. Équites…​ Nuntii debébant audíri. Nuntii…​ Praemia debébant accípi. Praemia…​ Insidiae non póterant vidéri. Insidiae…​ Coniuratio non póterat praevidéri. Coniuratio non…​ Pax non póterat sperári. Pax non…​ Haec non póterant aedificári. Haec non…​ Soróres non volébant conári. Soróres non…​ Vincula non póterant divídi. Vincula non…​

B. Here are some two part sentences to practice the possessive forms of pronouns. In the first sentence we will use the pronoun in some form. In the second, use the same pronoun in the possessive. Sample: Hic accépit pecuniam. Answer: Huius pecunia est. — Ille fecit navem. Is habuit navem. Is habuit uxórem. Idem fecit responsum. Marcus ipse habuit porcum. Hi accepérunt gladios. Hae puellae accepérunt soróres. Illi habent duces. Illae habent regínam. Ei accepérunt potestátem. Eae accepérunt filios. Eidem habent magistros. Eaedem habent amícos. Mílites ipsi accepérunt haec. Féminae ipsae accepérunt haec.

C. Here are some English sentences. Translate only the possessive word. Note that some require a form of suus, others, a form of eius, etc. Mary saw his father. Mary saw her own father. The girls saw their own friend. The girl saw their friend. The man saw their general. The men saw their general. The man saw her friend. The man saw their friend. The man saw his own friend.

35

A. How do you say (in the nominative): a fighting soldier, the fighting soldiers, the destroying army, the destroying armies, the falling king, the falling kings, the fleeing man, the fleeing men, the punishing messenger, the punishing messengers, the dying man, the dying men, the returning general, the returning generals.

B. Now imagine that the following expressions come after vidit: He saw the fighting soldiers (now go through same list as in A).

C. Here are some sentences with quando, quia, and quamquam. Turn them into ablative absolutes with present participles. Of course, do not bother to repeat the rest of the sentences. Sample: Quando Caesar clamábat, mílites laeti erant. Answer: Caésare clamante. — Quia Caesar monébat…​ Quamquam Caesar non petébat…​ Quamquam dux accusábat…​ Quia dux revertebátur…​ Quamquam María loquebátur…​ Quamquam imperátor sciébat…​ Quia rex regnábat…​ Quia Marcus videt…​ Quia agnus non venit…​ Quia Hánnibal non vincit…​ Quamquam Paulus discédit.

D. Here, for review, are some that use passive participles — same procedure. Quia Marcus visus est. Quamquam dux interfectus est. Quamquam Gallia divísa est. Quia agnus punítus est. Quia porta aperta est.

E. And now, here are some of each kind, that is, some that will need present active, some that need perfect passive participles: Quia Caesar veniébat. Quia Marcus vicébat. Quia Marcus victus est. Quamquam agnus visus est. Quando servus inventus est. Quamquam porcus exclamábat. Quamquam porta non aperta est. Quia Hánnibal non vicit. Quando Fabius missus est. Quia óppidum captum est. Quia óppidum cadit. Quando praemia accepta sunt. Quia dux discessit.

Now the tape will give the Latin answers to this last set. Translate each absolute in two ways, first in the crude form , e.g., “with Caesar coming”, then in any of the smoother forms.

36

Repeat the last three exercises.

37

A. Here are some two part sentences, using heri (yesterday) and hodie (today). In the second, we will use the future. Sample: Heri Marcus faciébat hoc. Hodie Paulus idem…​ Answer: faciet. — Heri María putábat hoc. Hodie regína idem…​ Heri Scipio Cartháginem delébat. hodie Corinthum…​ Heri Sempronius Romános ducébat. Hodie Fabius eos…​ Heri Marcus hos capiébat. Hodie Marcus illos…​ Heri imperátor hunc puniébat. Hodie imperátor illum…​ Heri Románi illas urbes capiébant. Hodie Románi has urbes…​ Heri nuntii hos hómines accusábant. Hodie nuntii illos…​ Heri Marcus illud perículum praevidébant. Hodie Marcus hoc perículum…​ Heri Románi hoc petébant. Hodie Románi illud…​ Heri senatóres illa audiébant. Hodie senatóres haec…​ Heri Marcus in illa urbe erat. Hodie Marcus in hac urbe…​ Heri nautae erant cum Paulo. Hodie nautae cum Marco…​

B. And now for some in the passive, including deponents. — Heri Marcus revocabátur. Hodie Paulus…​ Heri Galli timebantur. Hodie Graeci…​ Heri illa agebantur. Hodie haec…​ Heri illi revertebantur. Hodie hi…​ Heri haec urbs delebátur. Hodie illa urbs…​ Heri hic homo dimittebátur. Hodie ille…​ Heri socii interficiebantur. Hodie Románi ipsi…​ Heri Caesar moriebátur. Hodie Brutus…​ Heri aurum accipiebátur a milítibus. Hodie cibus a milítibus…​ Heri Marcus puniebátur. Hodie Paulus…​ Heri dux proficiscebátur. Hodie Marcus…​ Heri socii audiebantur. Hodie mílites Románi…​ Heri agnus revertebátur. Hodie porcus…​ Heri Cato loquebátur. Hodie Cícero…​

38

A. Here are some two part sentences. In the second part we will say that someone “seems” to have done something or “is said” to have done something. Sample: Marcus fecit hoc hodie. María vidétur heri hoc…​ Answer: fécisse. — Marcus respondit hodie. Marcus vidétur heri…​ Marcus fugit hodie. María vidétur heri…​ Marcus peruit scholam hodie. María dícitur heri scholam…​ Marcus placuit Maríae hodie. Paulus vidétur Maríae heri…​ Marcus liberávit agnum hodie. María dícitur agnum heri…​ Cícero comprehendit viros malos hodie. Cato dícitur eos heri…​ Mercus legit epístulam hodie. Paulus dícitur epístulam heri…​ Marcus fuit in cárcere hodie. Paulus dícitur in cárcere heri…​ Marcus collégit socios hodie. Paulus vidétur socios heri…​

B. And now some of the same but with passive infinitives, including deponents. Notice that the endings must change a bit for María, etc. Sample: Marcus reversus est hodie. María dícitur heri…​ Answer: reversa esse. (And we could make that plural too!) — Marcus profectus est hodie. María dícitur heri…​ María locuta est hodie. Paulus dícitur heri…​ Catilína mortuus est hodie. Alius vir malus dícitur heri…​ Marcus ductus est in cárcerem hodie. Paulus dícitur heri in cárcerem…​ Marcus natus est hodie. Paulus dícitur heri…​ Marcus factus est consul hodie. Paulus dícitur consul heri…​ Caesar mónitus est hodie. Cícero dícitur heri…​ And now some plurals. Galli victi sunt hodie. Etrusci dicuntur heri…​ Viri mali interfecti sunt hodie. Viri boni dicuntur heri…​ Hae féminae locútae sunt hodie. Illae féminae dicuntur heri…​

C. How do you say, in the singular: Who? Whose? Whom? With whom? Now in the plural: Who? Whose? Whom? With whom?

39

A. Here are some indirect statements with quod. Change each one into the new infinitive construction. First, some with present infinitives. Sample: Dicit quod Marcus návigat. Answer: Dicit Marcum navigáre. — Dicit quod María audit. Dicit quod Marcus rogat. Dicit quod Marcus videt. Dicit quod rex regnat. Dicit quod María remanet. Dicit quod Románi vincunt. Dicit quod Marcus vivit. Dicit quod Marcus fugit. Dicit quod Paulus abest. — And now a little change: we will use dixit — which will change the quod structure but not the infinitive structure. Dixit quod Marcus navigábat. Dixit quod Marcus rogábat. Dixit quod Marcus vidit. Dixit quod rex regnávit. Dixit quod María remansit. Dixit quod Románi vincébant. Dixit quod Marcus vivébat. Dixit quod Marcus fugiébat. Dixit quod Paulaus aberat. — And now some to use perfect infinitives. Dicit quod Marcus navigávit. Dicit quod María audívit. Dicit quod Marcus rogávit. Dicit quod Marcus vidit. Dicit quod rex regnávit. Dicit quod María remansit. Dicit quod Románi vicérunt. Dicit quod Marcus vixit. Dicit quod Marcus fugit. Dicit quod Paulus afuit. — And now a little change: we will use dixit — which will change the quod structure, but not the infinitive structure: Dixit quod Marcus navigáverat. Dixit quod María regnáverat. Dixit quod Marcus rogáverat. Dixit quod Marcus víderat. Dixit quod rex regnáverat. Dixit quod María remanserat. Dixit quod Románi vícerant. Dixit quod Marcus víxerat. Dixit quod Marcus fúgerat. Dixit quod Paulus afúerat.

B. Now let us do some of these from English to Latin — to answer, just give the two essential words, the objective and the infinitive. Sample: He says that Mary is coming Answer: Maríam veníre. He says that Marcus is sailing. He says that Mary is hearing. He says that Marcus asks. He says that Marcus sees. He says that the king is reigning. He says that Mary remains. He says that the Romans are conquering. He says that Marcus is living. He says that Marcus is fleeing. He says that Paulus is absent. He said that Mary was coming. He said that Marcus was sailing. He said that Mary was hearing. He said that Marcus was asking. He said that Marcus was seeing. He said that the king was reigning. He said that Mary was remaining. He said that the Romans were conquering. He said that Marcus was living. He said that Marcus was fleeing. He said that Paulus was absent. — He says that Marcus has sailed. He says that Mary heard. He says that Marcus asked. He says that Marcus saw. He says that the king has reigned. He says that Mary remained. He says that the Romans conquered. He says that Marcus has lived. He says that Marcus has fled. He says that Paulus was absent. He says that Mary has come.-- He said that Mary had come. He said that Marcus had sailed. He said that Mary had heard. He said that Marcus had asked. He said that Marcus had come. He said that Marcus had seen. He said that the king had reigned. He said that Mary had remained. He said that the Romans had conquered. He said that Marcus had lived. He said that Marcus had fled. He said that Paulus had been absent.

C. And now a little mixture: He says that Marcus has seen. He said that Marcus was seeing. He says that Mafcus is seeing. He says that Marcus saw. He said that Marcus had seen. He said that Marcus had sailed. He says that Marcus is sailing. He said that Marcus sailed. He says that Marcus has sailed.

40

Repeat last three exercises.

41

A. Here are some two part sentences. In the 2nd, add a verb in the subj. Then translate each example (sometimes using a that clause, sometimes an infinitive). Sample: María voluit vidére. María remansit ut…​ Answer: vidéret. — Marcus voluit pecuniam accípere. Marcus remansit ut…​ Porcus voluit exclamáre oink. Porcus discessit ut…​ Brutus voluit expéllere regem. Brutus venit ut regem…​ Románi voluérunt Cartháginem víncere. Románi misérunt exércitum ut Cartháginem…​ Senátus voluit vocáre Cincinnátum. Senátus misit legátos ut Cincinnátum…​ Magister non voluit agnum puníre. Magister expellit Marcum ne agnum…​ Marcus voluit scholam delére. Marcus venit ut scholam…​ Nemo voluit Marcum consúlere. Nemo venit ut Marcum…​ Cícero voluit comprehéndere coniuratóres. Cícero venit ut coniuratóres…​ Vates voluit monére Caésarem. Vates locútus est ut Caésarem…​

B. Here are some more with a different kind of verb — most of these would not use may or might in English. Translate each example. — Dux voluit Marcum veníre. Dux imperavit ut Marcus…​ María voluit Marcum audíre. María rogávit ut Marcum…​ Vates voluit Caésarem fúgere. Vates monuit Caésarem ut…​ Brutus non voluit Caésarem fúgere. Brutus petívit ne Caesar…​ Caesar non voluit Catilínam liberáre. Caesar rogávit ne senatóres Catilínam…​ Senátus voluit Hanníbalem delére. Senátus imperávit Fabio ut Hanníbalem…​ Senátus voluit Caésarem veníre. Senátui placuit ut Caesar…​

42

Here are some two part sentences. In the 2nd, use a passive or deponent verb. Sample: Exemple: Senátui placuit Caésarem vocáre. Ei placuit ut Caesar…​ Answer: vocáretur. — Marco placuit agnum expéllere. Huit placuit ut agnus…​ Románis placuit dictatórem creáre. Illis placuit ut dictátor…​ Senatóres voluérunt Caésarem loqui. Rogavérunt ut Caesar…​ Senátus voluit Marcum sequi. Senátus imperávit Marco ut…​ Cícero voluit Catilínam interfícere. Illi placuit ut Catilína…​ Maríae ipsi placuit agnum in scholam dúcere. Ipsi placuit ut agnus in scholam…​ Antonio placuit Cicerónem decolláre. Eidem placuit ut Cícero…​ Cícero voluit tenére Catilinam. Cícero imperávit milítibus ut Catilína…​ Marcus voluit monstráre haec Maríae. Marcus rogávit ut haec ei…​ Caesar voluit consilia senátui toti explicáre. Caesar petívit ut consilia toti senátui…​ Antonius voluit dare corónam Caésari soli. Antonius rogávit ut Caésari soli coróna…​ Marcus non voluit haec álteri promíttere. Marcus rogávit ne haec álteri…​ Senátus non voluit potestátem uni dare. Senátus monuit ne potestas uni…​ Senátus non voluit magnam potestátem ulli promíttere. Senátus monuit ne magna potestas ulli…​

43

A. Here are some sentences with either quando, quia or quamquam clauses, or with abl. absolutes. Change these clauses and ablative absolutes to cum clauses. First, some with the imperfect subj. Sample: Quia María in schola erat, Marcus laetus erat. Cum María in schola…​ Answer: esset. — Quia agnus vivébat…​ Cum agnus…​ Quamquam agnum sequebatur…​ Cum agnum…​ Quando Galli fugiébant…​ Cum Galli…​ Quia Scipio delébat urbem…​ Cum Scipio urbem…​ Quando María fábulam narrábat…​ Cum María fábulam…​ María vivente…​ Cum María…​ Hanníbale moriente…​ Cum Hánnibal…​ Quia María respondébat…​ Cum María…​ Agno non sequente…​ Cum agnus non…​

B. And now some for pluperfect subj. — Quia Cícero vénerat…​ Cum Cícero…​ Quia exércitus liberáverat…​ Cum exércitum…​ Quamquam exércitus fúgerat…​ Cum exércitus…​ Quando María rediit…​ Cum María…​ Quando óppida portas aperuérunt…​ Cum óppida portas…​

C. And now a few of each, mixed. — Quia María veniébat…​ Cum María…​ Quia María vénerat…​ Cum María…​ Quamquam agnus in schola fúerat…​ Cum agnus…​ Quamquam agnus in schola erat…​ Cum agnus in schola…​ Quando Scipio urbem delébat…​ Cum Scipio urbem…​ Quando Scipio urbem delévit…​ Cum Scipio urbem…​

44

Repeat last three lessons.

45

A. Add several result clauses to this sentence and translate each completed sentence. Sample: Catilína tam malus erat ut nemo eum loved. Answer: amáret. — ut nemo eum veníre asked…​ ut nemo eum consulted…​ ut nemo eum vidére wanted…​ ut nemo cum eo went…​ ut nemo did not flee…​ ut nemo eum did not accuse…​

B. Now fill in and translate a different type. Sample: Áccidit ut Marcus agnum saw. Answer: vidéret. — ut Maríam he loved…​ ut agnum comédere he wanted…​ ut domi he rested…​ ut Cicerónem he consulted…​ ut cum María he spoke.

C. Now turn the ablative absolutes into cum clauses with pl. pf. subj. Sample: Agno interfecto, Marcus laetus erat. Cum agnus…​ Answer: interfectus esset. — María visa…​ Cum María…​ Cibo petíto…​ Cum cibus…​ His factis…​ Cum haec…​ Románis liberátis…​ Cum Románi…​ Agno secúto…​ Cum agnus…​

46

A. Complete the Latin of each indirect question with a subjunctive verb. Sample: María vult scire ubi Marcus est. Answer: sit. — Vult scire quis agnum loves. Quis librum has. Quis hoc believes. Quis is fleeing. Cui agnus obeys. Quis ex urbe is being expelled. Num porta is being opened. Quis suit. Quis is being captured. Quae urbs is being destroyed. Quis is being deprived. Quae are being narrated. Qui are being taught. Qui are being captured. Qui are following. Qui are being punished. Qui are coming. Quid Románi are hoping. Quid puellae are answering. Quid mílites are making. Quid nautae are proposing.

B. How do you say?: May he obey. May they flee. Let him open. Let them come. May they follow. May he speak. May he love. May he be loved. Let him be heard.

47

A. Listen to these forms. Tell in Latin to whom each form refers. Everyone knows that ego means I. And tu is you, as in “Et tu Brute”. Today’s lesson adds vos for more than one you. And more than one I is nos. Repeat each of these verbs with ego, tu, nos, or vos, thereby making an emphatic form. Sample: Amem. Answer: Ego amem. — teneam, capiam, deleas, ames, nesciam, credam, ostendas, facias, liberémus, habeámus, venias, ignoscámus, nesciámus, privétis, doceátis, puniámus, reddátis, faciátis, nesciátis, amárem, tenérem, cáperem, deléres, amáres, nescírem, créderem, osténderes, fáceres, amarémus, haberémus, venirémus, ignoscerémus, nescirémus, privarétis, docerétis, punirétis, redderétis, facerétis, nescirétis, amavissem, tenuissem, cepissem, delevisses, amavisses, amavissétis, cepissémus, venissémus, fecissétis, possis, vélimus, nólitis, vellem, possétis.

B. Now let us try to make a few forms for ourselves. Change these to forms with which you could use ego: paret, habeat, ducat, faciat, audiat, amáret, cáperet, habuisset, audivisset. Now change them to forms with which you could use tu, nos and vos.

48

Repeat last three exercises.

49

A. Listen to these forms. Tell in Latin to whom each refers, by adding ego, etc., to make emphatic forms: amábam, terrébam, capiébam, delébas, amábas, nesciébam, rumpébam, ostendébam, faciébam, liberabámus, habebámus, veniébas, ignoscebámus, nesciebámus, privabátis, docebátis, puniebámus, reddebátis, faciebátis, nesciebátis, amáveram, céperam, deléveras, amáveras, nescíveram, crediderátis, ostenderátis, fecerámus, nesciverámus, amaverátis, eras, fúeras, póteram, poterátis, pouterátis, voluerámus, noluerámus, erámus, nolúeras, volúeras.

B. Now let us try to make a few forms for ourselves. Change these to forms with which you could use ego: parábat, habébat, ducébat, faciébat, audiébat, amáverat, habúerat, dúxerat, céperat, audíverat, tuerrúerat, erat, fúerat, póterat, potúerat, volébat, nolébat. Now do the same with tu, nos, and vos.

50

A. Listen to these forms. Tell in Latin to whom each refers by adding ego, etc., to make emphatic forms: mutávi, terrui, delevisti, crédidi, habúimus, nescivisti, venistis, oboedivistis, terrúimus, punívimus, fui, potui, voluisti, noluisti, nolui, fuisti, potuisti, voluistis, nolúimus, volúimus, potuistis.

B. Now let us try to make a few forms for ourselves. Change these to forms with which you could see ego for emphasis: mutávit, terruit, cepit, clausit, delévit, nescívit, crédidit, habuit, fecit, fuit, potuit, voluit, noluit. Now do the same with tu, nos, and vos.

C. Repeat these short sentences, putting the one English expression into Latin. In the first batch, let us make you singular. Sample: Feci hoc to you. Answer: Feci hoc tibi. — Dixi hoc to you. Dedi hoc to you. Promísi hoc to you. Mostravisti hoc to us. Proposuisti hoc to us. Imperavisti hoc to us. Vidimus you. Audívimus you. Amávimus you. Vidisti us. Audivisti us. Amavistis us. Accépi hoc from you. Rapui hoc from you. Petívi hoc from you. Accepisti hoc from us. Rapuisti hoc from us. Petivisti hoc from us. — Habui odium of you. Vidisti néminem of us. Amavistis néminem of us. Habúimus amórem of you. And now for some plural you's: Feci hoc to you. Dixi hoc to you. Dedi hoc to you. Promísi hoc to you. Vídimus you. Audívimus you. Amávimus you. Accépi hoc from you. Rapui hoc from you. Petívi hoc from you.

51

A. Change these to emphatic forms, by adding ego, etc: hábito, amo, téneo, terres, paras, deles, duco, capio, afficio, audio, ducis, facis, venis, amámus, tenémus, parátis, delétis, dúcimus, cápimus, audímus, fínimus, dúcitis, fácitis, affícitis, vénitis, muto, terreo, amas, habes, claudo, afficio, nescio, rumpis, intérficis, oboédis, mutámus, terrémus, parátis, habétis, claúdimus, affícimus, néscimus, rúmpitis, interfícitis, oboéditis.

B. Now let us try to make a few forms for ourselves. Change these to forms with which you could use ego for emphasis: parat, habet, terret, ducit, facit, audit, amat, tenet, claudit, áfficit, capit, finit, venit. Now do the same with tu, nos and vos.

52

Repeat last three exercises and add:

Repeat these short sentences, putting the one English expression into Latin: Sample: Facis hoc to me. Answer: Facis hoc mihi. — Dicis hoc to me. Das hoc to me. Promittis hoc to me. Vidétis me. Amátis me. Audis me. Áccipis hoc from me. Rapis hoc from me. Pétitis hoc from me. Habétis amórem of me.

53

A. Change these to emphatic forms by adding ego, etc.: perseverábo, amábo, tenébo, parábis, delébis, parcam, ducam, faciam, capiam, audiam, oboediam, duces, facies, venies, oboedies, amábimus, tenébimus, parábitis, perseverábitis, delébitis, ducémus, parcémus, capiémus, faciémus, audiémus, oboediémus, dicéetis, faciétis, veniétis, mutábo, terrébo, perseverábis, habébis, claudes, afficies, nescies, rumpes, interficies, oboedies, mutábimus, terrébimus, parábitis, habébitis, claudémus, afficiémus, nesciémus, rumpétis, interficiétis, oboediétis.

B. Now let us try to make a few forms for ourselves. Change these to forms with which you could use ego for emphasis: mutábit, parábit, habébit, terrébit, ducet, faciet, oboediet, audiet, amábit, tenébit, claudet, capiet, veniet. Now do the same with tu, nos and vos.

54

A. Tell in Latin to whom each form refers by adding ego, etc., to make emphatic forms:

Use a form of ille to stand for he, she, it, they. Vis, is, vult, non vis, it, vólumus, imus, vultis, itis, eunt, volo, eo, non vult, non vólumus, nolo, non vultis, volunt, nolunt.

B. Here are some two part sentences. In the second part, use a form of the verb ire like the form of velle or nolle used in the first part. Sample: Volo ire. Answer: eo. — Vult ire. Non vult ire. Vis ire. Non vis ire. Vólumus ire. Vultis ire. Non vólumus ire. Non vultis ire. Volunt ire. Nolunt ire.

C. And now, let us just reverse the procedure. Sample: Eo. Answer: Volo ire. — Eunt. Non eunt. Non itis. Itis. Imus. Non is. Is. Non it. It.

D. And now, let us try the same sort of thing with imperfects and futures. Sample: Exemple: Ibo. Answer: volam ire. — Ibunt. Non ibunt. Non ibitis. Non ibimus. Ibimus. Non ibis. Ibis. Non ibit. Ibit. Ibat. Non ibat. Non ibas. Ibas. Ibamus. Non ibatis. Non ibamus. Non ibant. Ibant.

E. And now the same, but in reverse. Sample: Volam ire. Answer: ibo. — Volébant ire. Nolébant ire. Nolebátis ire. Nolebámus ire. Volebámus ire. Volébas ire. Nolébas ire. Nolébat ire. Volébat ire. Volet ire. Nolet ire. Voles ire. Noles ire. Volémus ire. Nolétis ire. Nolémus ire. Nolent ire. Volent ire. Volam ire.

55

A. And now, let us translate into English every verb form we know that begins with I in translation. First the indicative, then the subjunctives — we shall translate the subjunctives like the indicatives: amo, amábo, amábam, amávi, amáveram, amem, amárem, amavissem; teneo, tenébo, tenébam, tenui, tenúeram, teneam, tenérem, tenuissem; pono, ponam, ponébam, posui, posúeram, ponam, pónerem, posuissem; capio, capiam, capiébam, cepi, céperam, capiam, cáperem; audio, audiam, audiébam, audívi, audíveram, audiam, audírem, audivissem.

And now the forms with which we use you: rogas, rogábis, rogábas, rogavisti, rogáveras, roges, rogáres, rogavisses. And now some to use we: tenémus, tenébimus, tenebámus, tenúimus, tenuerámus, teneámus, tenerémus, tenuissemus. And now some to use plutal you: pónitis, ponétis, ponebátis, posuistis, posuerátis, ponátis, ponerétis, posuissétis.

But now, let us translate in the other direction every verb form we know that starts with he. First we will make the three that come from the first part of the verb, then the two from the second part of the verb. And, of course, indicative first of all, and later, subjunctive. Here are some samples: He loves: amat; he will love: amabit; he was loving: amábat; he has loved, amávit; he had loved: amáverat — and so on.

Ready now: he asks, he will ask, he was asking, he has asked, he had asked. And now subjunctive: he asks, he was asking, he had asked.-- And now the same on tenére - to hold: he holds, he will hold, he was holding, he has held, he had held. And subjunctive: he holds, he was holding, he had held. Now the same on pónere - to put: he puts, he will pit, he was putting, he has put, he had put. And subjunctive: he puts, he was putting, he had put. — And now the same on cápere - capture: he captures, he will capture, he was capturing, he has captured, he had captured. And subjunctive: he captures, he was capturing, he had captured. — Now the same on audíre - to hear: he hears, he will hear, he was hearing, he has heard, he had heard. And subjunctive: he hears, he was hearing, he had heard.

Now let us do the same with forms meaning they: First with rogare - to ask: they ask, they will ask, they were asking, they have asked, they had asked. And subjunctive: they ask, they were asking, they had asked. — Now the same on iubére - order: they order, they will order, they were ordering, they have ordered, they had ordered. And subjunctive: they order, they were ordering, they had ordered. — Now the same with dúcere - to lead: they lead, they will lead, they were leading, they have led, they had led. And subjunctive: they lead, they were leading, they had led.-- Now the same with fácere - to do: they do, they will do, they were doing, they have done, they had done. And subjunctive: they do, they were doing, they had done. — Now the same with puníre - to punish: they punish, they will punish, they were punishing, they have punished, they had punished. And subjunctive: they punish, they were punishing, they had punished.

Now let us do the same for forms that mean I: First with amáre - to love: I love, I shall love, I was loving, I have loved, I had loved. And subjunctive: I love, I was loving, I had loved. — Now with tenére - to hold: I hold, I shall hold, I was holding, I have held, I had held. And subjunctive: I hold, I was holding, I had held. — Now the same with pónere - to put: I put, I will put, I was putting, I have put, I had put. And subjunctive: I put, I was putting, I had put. — Now the same with fácere - to do: I do, I shall do, I was doing, I have done, I had done. And subjunctive: I do, I was doing, I had done. — Now with puníre - to punish: I punish, I shall punish, I was punishing, I have punished, I had punished. And subjunctive: I punish, I was punishing, I had punished.

Now let us make the we forms: First with amáre - to love; we love, we shall love, we were loving, we have loved, we had loved. And subjunctive: we love, we were loving, we had loved. — Now with tenére - to hold; we hold, we shall hold, we were holding, we have held, we had held. And subjunctive: we hold, we were holding, we had held.- - Now with pónere - to put: we put, we shall put, we were putting, we have put, we had put. And subjunctive: we put, we were putting, we had put. — Now with cápere - to capture: we capture, we shall capture, we were capturing, we have captured, we had captured. And subjunctive: we capture, we were capturing, we had captured. — Now with audíre - to head: we hear, we shall hear, we were hearing, we have heard, we had heard. And subjunctive: we hear, we were hearing, we had heard.

Now let us make the singular you forms. First with rogáre - to ask: you ask, you will ask, you were asking, you have asked, you had asked. And subjunctive: you ask, you were asking, you had asked. — Now with iubére - to order: you order, you will order, you were ordering, you have ordered, you had ordered. And subjunctive: you order, you were ordering, you had ordered. — Now with dúcere - to lead: you lead, you will lead, you were leading, you have led, you had led. And subjunctive: you lead, you were leading, you had led. Now with fácere - to do: you do, you will do, you were doing, you have done, you had done. And subjunctive: you do, you were doing, you had done. — Now with puníre - to punish: you punish, you will punish, you were punishing, you have punished, you had punished. And subjunctive: you punish, you were punishing, you had punished.

Now let us make the plural you forms. First with amáre - to love: you love, you will love, you were loving, you have loved, you had loved. And subjunctive: you love, you were loving, you had loved. — Now with tenére - to hold: you hold, you will hold, you were holding, you have held, you had held. And subjunctive: you hold, you were holding, you had held. — Now with pónere - to put: You put, you will put, you were putting, you have put, you had put. And subjunctive: you put, you were putting, you had put. — Now with cápere - to capture, you will capture, you were capturing, you have captured, you had captured. And subjunctive: you capture, you were capturing, you had captured. — And now with audíre - to hear: you hear, you will hear, you were hearing, you have heard, you had heard. And subjunctive: you hear, you were hearing, you had heard.

  1. How do you say, in the singular: love! hold! put! capture! listen! prepare! destroy! close! kill! come! (note to teacher: next take same list for plural then twice more for: do not…​, in singular and plural)

56

A. Tell in Latin to whom each form refers by adding ego, etc., to make emphatic forms: es, fers, est, potes, fert, sumus, férimus, estis, fertis, sunt, sum, fero, potest, póssumus, potestis, possum, ferunt, possunt.

B. Here are some two part sentences. In the second part, use a form of the verb esse like the form of posse used in the first part. Sample: Possum esse. Answer: sum. — Potes esse. Póssumus esse. Potest esse. Potestis esse. Possunt esse. — And now reverse: Sunt. Estis. Est. Sumus. Es. Sum.

C. Now more two part sentences. In the second part, use a form of ferre like the form of velle or nolle used in the first part. Sample: Volo ferre. Answer: fero. Vis ferre. Volunt ferre. Non vultis ferre. Vult ferre. Nólumus ferre. Volo ferre.

57

A. Here are some two part sentences, using ego, etc., for contrast and balance. In the 2nd part, fill in the suitable passive form. Sample: Ego amávi vos. Ego etiam a vobis…​ Answer: amátus sum. — Ego vidi vos. Ego etiam a vobis…​ Ego misi vos. Ego etiam a vobis…​ Vos vidistis me. Vos etiam a me…​ Vos monuistis me. Vos etiam a me…​ Vos terruistis me. Vos etiam a me…​ Tu illos vidisti. Tu etiam ab illis…​ Tu illos liberavisti. Tu etiam ab illis…​ Tu expulisti illos. Tu etiam ab illis…​ Nos Romános revocávimus. Nos etiam a Románis…​ Nos te audívimus. Nos etiam a te…​ Nos te invénimus. Nos etiam a te…​ Nos te audívimus. Nos etiam a te…​ Ego te céperam. Ego etiam a te…​ Tu eos terrúeras. Tu etiam ab eis…​ Vos illos vocaverátis. Vos etiam ab illis…​ Nos te rogaverámus. Nos etiam a te…​

B. Now let us give future active, and answer in future perfect passive. Sample: Ego amabo vos. Ego etiam a vobis…​ Answer: amátus ero. Ego te rogábo. Ego etiam a te…​ Ego illos vocábo. Ego etiam ab illis…​ Vos illos terrébitis. Vos etiam ab illis…​ Vos me capiétis. Vos etiam a me…​ Vos mílites inveniétis. Vos etiam a milítibus…​ Tu me audies. Tu etiam a me…​ Tu illos revocábis. Tu etiam ab illis…​ Tu eos expelles. Tu etiam ab illis…​ Nos illos liberábimus. Nos etiam ab illis…​

C. Complete the translation using perfect subj. Sample: Rogat de me num I was sent. Answer: num missus sim. — Rogat de vobis num you were sent. Rogat de nobis num we were captured. — And now, a few of the same with deponents. Rogat de me num I followed. Rogat de vobis num you were angry. Rogat de nobis num we recalled. — And now a few with cum. Odit me cum I was terrified. Odit nos cum we were captured. Odit vos cum you were heard. Odit te cum you were terrified. — And now some deponents. Amat vos cum you followed. Amat me cum I spoke. Odit nos cum we delayed. Odit te cum you went out.

58

A. Make these into emphatic forms by adding ego, etc.: amer, priver, privémur, doceámur, dócear, óccidar, capiar, occidámur, capiámur, subiciámur, audiámur, doceámini, amémini, privémini, sequar, loquar, egrediáris, recordéris, privárer, privarémur, docerémur, docérer, fállerer, cáperer, subícerer, ducerémur, subicerémini, punirémur, punírer, amaréris, teneréris, duceréris, audirémini, subicerémini, occiderémini, caperéris, audiréris, docerémini, mutarémini, séquerer, lóquerer, egrederéris.

B. Now let us try to make a few for ourselves. Change these to forms with which you could use ego for emphasis: amétur, privétur, teneátur, doceátur, audiátur, capiátur, ducátur, ponátur, parétur, habeátur, nesciátur, sequátur, loquátur, docerétur, occiderétur, mutarétur, subicerétur, audirétur, punirétur, egrederétur, recordarétur. Now do the same with tu, nos and vos.

C. Tell whether you would use nonne, num, or ne enclitic with these: You aren’t coming are you? We are not sleeping are we? Are we sleeping? Are we coming? Aren’t we coming? Aren’t we sleeping? Are you angry? You aren’t angry are you? Aren’t you angry?

D. Translate: Num adóras? Num nescímus? Nonne adorátis? Nonne crédimus? Credimusne? Adorasne? Num spero? Nonne credis? Irascerisne? Nonne dormitis? Num discessit?

E. And now let us translate these subjunctives with cum and ut. Let us treat cum as since, and ut as standing for purpose. Sample: Cum amer. Answer: Since I am loved; ut priver, That I may be deprived. — Cum privémur. Ut doceámur. Cum docéar. Ut óccidar. Cum cápiar. Ut occidámur. Cum capiámur. Ut subiciámur. Cum audiámur. Ut doceámini. Cum amémini. Ut privémini. Cum privárer. Ut privarémur. Cum docerémur. Ut docérer. Cum fállerer. Ut cáperer. Cum subícerer. Ut ducerémur. Cum subicerémini. Ut punirémur. Cum punírer. Ut amaréris. Cum teneréris. Ut duceréris. Cum audirémini. Ut subicerémini. Cum occiderémini. Ut caperéris. Cum audiréris. Ut docerémini. Cum mutarémini. Ut séquerer. Cum lóquerer. Ut egrederéris.

59

Repeat exercises 57 & 58.

60

A. Make these into emphatic forms by adding ego, etc.: amábar, numerábar, numerabámur, docebámur, docébar, trahébar, capiébar, subiciébar, subiciébamur, trahebámur, audiébamur, puniébar, mutabáris, tenebáris, trahebáris, puniebámini, capiebámini, trahebámini, capiebáris, puniebáris, terrebámini, amabámini, sequébar, loquébar, egrediebáris, recordabáris. And now, let us translate these forms, each in two ways. Sample: amábar, I was loved, I was being loved. Numerábar…​

B. Now let us try to make a few for ourselves. Change these to forms with which you could use ego for emphasis: mutabátur, amabátur, docebátur, terrebátur, audiebátur, capiebátur, trahebátur, ponebátur, parabátur, habebátur, nesciebátur, sequebátur, loquebátur, tenebátur, egrediebátur, emebátur, vendebátur. Now do the same with tu, nos and vos.

C. Here are some two part sentences. In the second, fill in a form of aliquis, using the proper gender, masculine, feminine or neuter, according to the thought of the first sentence. First, let us use the plural of aliquis. Sample: Non vidi omnes fratres. Answer: Vidi áliquos. — Non vidisti omnes filias. Vidisti…​ Non vídimus omnia génera. Vídimus…​ Non dabas haec ómnibus viris. Dabas haec…​ Non monstrábam haec ómnibus puellis. Monstrábam haec…​ Non dixi haec ómnibus senatóribus. Dixi haec…​ Non amábis omnes puellas. Amábis…​ Non commisisti omnia crímina. Commisisti…​ Non ódimus omnes Gallos. Ódimus…​ Non fuisti in ómnibus carcéribus. Fuisti in…​ Fames non est in ómnibus terris. Fames est in…​ Non venit Marcus cum ómnibus epístulis. Venit cum…​ Non habébimus odium omnium mílitum. Habébimus odium…​ Non habébitis amórem omnium puellárum. Habébitis amórem…​ Non apueruérunt portas omnium oppidórum. Apuerérunt portas…​ Non venérunt omnes mílites. Venérunt…​ Non discessérunt omnes puellae. Discessérunt…​ Non fracta sunt omnia víncula. Fracta sunt…​ And now, some in the singular: Non venient omnes. Veniet…​ Féminae dixérunt: Non omnes moriémur. Moriétur…​ Non narrabuntur omnia somnia. Narrábitur…​ Non mittémus multos viros. Mittémus…​ Non committet multa crímina. Committet…​ Non dábimus haec multis. Dábimus haec…​ Non placébit hic vir multis puellis. Forsan placébit…​ Non erit in multis carcéribus. Forsan erit in…​ Non monébitur a multis viris. Forsan monébitur ab…​ Non erit pax in multis úrbibus. Forsan pax erit in…​ Non erit rex multárum urbium. Forsan rex erit…​ Non erit imperátor multórum exércituum. Forsan imperátor erit…​

61

A. Make these into emphatic forms by adding ego, etc.: amor, ligor, teneor, ligáris, tenéris, ducor, vendor, subicior, ducéris, vendéris, capéris, punior, ligámur, docémur, ligámini, tenémini, véndimur, vendímini, cápimur, audímur, capímini, deléris, docéris, rogor, rogámur, delémur, mutámini, docémini, véndimur, mittimini, interfícimur, púnimur, interficímini, punímini, conor, loquéris, egredéris, pollicémur, revertímini, conámini, sequéris.

B. Now let us try to make some for ourselves. Change these to forms with which you could use ego for emphasis: vocátur, interfícitur, docétur, púnitur, tráhitur, monétur, lóquitur, conátur, séquitur, vénditur, revértitur, egréditur, dúcitur, cápitur, subícitur, míttitur. Now do the same with tu, nos and vos.

C. Here are some three part sentences. In the last part, fill in the proper form of quis, quid, plus a verb. In the first group, let us use the singular of quis, quid. Sample: Non multum das nobis. Parvum est si…​ Answer: quid das. (Teacher: Please emphasize vocally multum das, and corresponding words in other sets.) Non multos amat. Paucos amat si…​ Non multis dat haec. Paucis dat si…​ Non accípimus haec a multis. A paucis accípimus si a…​ Non multi haec faciunt. Pauci faciunt, si…​ Non accépit monitiónes multórum. Paucorum monitiónes accépit si…​ — And now let us use the plural in answering these: Non multi faciunt haec. Pauci faciunt si…​ Non multa novit agnus. Pauca novit si…​ Non multas monitiónes accépit Caesar. Paucas accépit si…​ Non multos amat. Paucos amat si…​ Non multae féminae haec faciunt. Paucae faciunt si…​ — Now let us translate the filled in sentences.

62

A. Add ego, etc., to these to make emphatic forms: rogábor, tenébor, rogáberis, tenéberis, ducar, capiar, audiar, audiéris, capiéris, dúceris, amabímini, delebímini, mittémur, delébimur, amábimur, interficiémini, mittémini, interficiémur, puniémur, puniémini, subiciar, puniar, adoráberis, sequar, tradar, terréberis, pollicébor, terrébor, adorábor, conáberis, tráderis, audiéris, subiciéris, lóqueris, obliviscémur, numerábimur, implébimur, numerabímini, implebímini, oriémini, audiémur, praeficiémur, tradémur, praeficiémini, tradémini, audiémini. And now let us translate these forms.

B. Now let us make a few forms for ourselves. Change these to forms with which you could use ego for emphasis: amábitur, ducétur, capiétur, tenébitur, audiétur, rogábitur, puniétur, mittétur, interficiétur, loquétur, delébitur, sequétur, conábitur, pollicébitur. Now do the same for tu, nos and vos.

C. How do you say, in calling someone by name: O good Marcus, O excellent Paulus, O my friend, O good queen, O bad pig, O brave soldier, O Marcus Porcius.

63

And now for review, let us translate samples of the passive of each tense that we know, both indicative and subjunctive: amátur, amábitur, amabátur, amátus est. Au subjonctif: amétur, amarétur, amátus sit, amátus esset. Tenétur, tenébitur, tenebátur, tentus est, tentus erat. And subjunctive: teneátur, tenerétur, tentus sit, tentus esset. Pónitur, ponétur, ponebátur, pósitus est, pósitus erat. Au subjonctif: ponátur, ponerétur, pósitus sit, pósitus esset. Cápitur, capiétur, capiebátur, captus est, captus erat. And subjunctive: capiátur, caperétur, captus sit, captus esset. Audítur, audiétur, audiebátur, audítus est, audítus erat. Au subjonctif: audiátur, audirétur, audítus sit, audítus esset.

Now some forms for first person: amor, amábor, amábar, amátus sum, amátus eram. And subjunctive: amer, amárer, amátus sim, amátus essem, iubear, ducar, subiciar, puniar.

Now some second person singular forms: amáris, amáberis, amabáris, amátus est, amátus erat; tenéris; póneris, ponéris; cáperis, capiéris, capiebáris; audíris, audiéris. And subjunctive: améris, amaréris, amátus sim, amátus essem, iubeáris, ducáris, subiciáris, puniáris.

Now some first plural forms: amámur, amábimur, amabámur, amáti sumus, amáti erámus; tenémur, pónimur, cápimur, audímur, audiémur. And some subjunctives: amémur, amarémur, amáti simus, amáti essémus, iubeámur, ducámur, subiciámur, puniámur.

And some second plural forms: amámini, amabímini, amabámini, amáti estis, amáti erátis, tenémini, ponímini, capímini, audímini. And some subjunctives: amémini, amarémini, amáti sitis, amáti essétis, iubeámini, ducámini, subiciámini, puniámini.

64

A. Complete the translations, using the perfect subjunctive active. Sample: Rogat de me, num I have come. Answer: num vénerim. — Rogat de vobis num you have sinned. Rogat de nobis num we have heard. Rogat de te num you have heared. Rogat de me num I have been consul. Amat vos cum you have wept. Amat te cum you have remained. Odit nos cum we have departed. Odit me cum I have sinned. Amat te cum you have prepared. Amat nos cum we have come.

B. Here are some two part sentences, which use the future in the second part. The future is correct, but the future perfect is preferable. Therefore repeat the second part, with the future perfect. Sample: Laetus ero, si venies. Answer: Si véneris. — Non laetus erit si peccábo. — Non laetus erit si urbem delébitis. Laeti érimus si haec facies. Laetus eris si urbem capiémus. Laetus ero si me audiet. Non laetus erit Marcus si Románi discédent. Pecuniam dábimus si non flébitis. Non laeti erunt si haec constituam. Haec faciam si Caesar praecipiet. Then translate each example.

C. How do you give the command, in the singular: Follow! attempt! forget! delay! be taught! be led! be destroyed! (Note to teacher: Now take same set for plural).

65

A. Here are some three part sentences. The first part will help you remember the right vowels to use before the ending of the future passive participle. For example, interficietur, uses the same ie as interficiendus. — In the third part fill in the proper form of the future passive participle. Sample: Caesar interficiétur. Caesar debet intérfici. Caesar est…​ Answer: interficiendus. — Marcus capiétur. Marcus debet capi. Marcus est…​ Pater audiétur. Pater debet audíri. Pater est…​ María robábitur. María debet rogári. María est…​ Hostes terrebuntur. Hostes debent terréri. Hostes sunt…​ Servi trahentur. Servi debent trahi. Servi sunt…​

B. Now let us repeat the same set, but add an expression to say by whom it should be done. We can get along without the help of the first part of each group this time. Sample: Caesar debet intérfici a nobis. Caesar est…​ Answer: interficiendus nobis. — Marcus debet capi a María. Marcus est…​ Pater debet audíri a filiis. Pater est…​ María debet rogári a Marco. María est…​ Hostes debent terréri a Románis. Hostes sunt…​ Servi debent trahi a milítibus. Servi sunt…​ — And now we will add some new examples of the same type. María debet amári a Marco. María est…​ Pecunia debet tradi a nobis. Pecunia est…​ Explorátor debet addúci a Paulo. Explorátor est…​ Somnium debet audíri a vobis. Somnium est…​ Panis bonus debet emi a frátribus. Panis bonus est…​ Praeco magnus debet reperíri a cívibus. Praeco magnus est…​ Dictátor debet constitui a senátu. Dictátor est…​ Frumentum debet vendi a vobis. Frumentum est…​ Fratres debent áccipi a te. Frates sunt…​ Haec debent praécipi a duce. Haec sunt…​

C. And now, let us try to translate these into a smooth English pattern. Sample: María est amanda Marco. Answer: Marc doit aimer Marie. — Praeco est audiendus Paulo. Frater est mittendus nobis. Frumentum est emendum frátribus. Aurum est infundendum Mithradáti. Rex est reperiendus cívibus. Panis est vendendus Iosépho. Crux est amanda nobis. Dóminus est colendus nobis. Agni sunt numerandi Maríae. Dux est sequendus nobis. Haec sunt obliviscenda tibi. Hostes sunt ligandi milítibus.

D. Now, we can use the same pattern of English translation for these, even though they are a little different. Sample: Veniendum est nobis. Answer: We must come. — Eundum est mihi. Manendum est tibi. Dolendum est mihi. Requiescendum est tibi. Accedendum est nobis. Dormiendum est Caésari. Flendum est Maríae. Abeundum est agno. Perseverandum est mihi. Egrediendum est Catilínae. Laborandum est nobis. Revertendum est fratri.

E. Translate the English parts of these sentences. Sample: Vidi 2000 soldiers. Answer: Vidi duo millia militum. — Vidimus 1000 sailors. Vidébo 4000 of the enemy.

F. Translate the English parts of these sentences. Sample: Venimus 3 miles. Answer: Venimus tria millia passuum. — Eundum est two miles. Iter fécimus 3 days. Laborandum est many days. Erit in cárcere many years. Fuit rex one year. Venérunt a long journey.

66

Repeat 65 and add:

A. Let us practice a bit on using the right subjunctive tenses. Translate into Latin just the words in English from the following. — First, some to use either present or perfect subjunctive. Caesar vult veníre, cum he knows this. Románi laeti sunt, cum Caesar Galliam has conquered. Ioséphus vult flere, cum fratres he sees. Fratres terrentur cum pecunia has been found. Pater laetus est cum fratres frumentum are carrying. Ioséphus laetus est cum fratres have come. Fratres timent ne Ioséphus sibi may harm. — And now, some to use imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. Caesar noluit veníre cum haec he knew. Pater noluit filium parvum míttere ne rex filio might harm. Fratres térriti sunt cum pecunia had been found. Pater laetus erat cum fratres frumentum were carrying. Ioséphus laetus erat cum fratres had come. Ioséphus laetus erat cum de patre he was hearing.

67

A. Here are some two part sentences. In the second, fill in a noun with a gerundive. First let us use ad with the objective. Sample: Venit ut vidéret Caésarem. Venit…​ Answer: ad videndum Caésarem. — Misit eos ut émerent frumentum. Misit eos…​ Discessérunt ut fratrem addúcerent. Discessérunt…​ Vocavérunt mercatóres ut vénderent fratrem. Vocavérunt mercatóres…​ Missus est in Aegyptum ut serváret fratres. Missus est in Aegyptum…​ Haec fecit Ioséphus ut fratres probáret. Haec fecit Ioséphus…​ Fratres revsersi sunt ut haec narrárent. Fratres reversi sunt…​ Dedit frumentum ut patrem servárent. Dedit frumentum…​

B. Now let us use the possessive followed by causa for these: (Note to teacher: take same set again).

C. Change each sentence into one having a dative of possession. Sample: Librum habet. Answer: Liber est ei. — Agnum habet María. Potestátem habet Ioséphus. Frumentum habet rex. Metum habent fratres. Cálicem habet servus. Rex habet sapientiam. Frater habet pecuniam. Servus habet somnium. Pater habet dolórem. Mercátor habet negotium.

68

A. Here are some two part sentences. In the second part, use a gerund for purpose. First, let us use ad with objective. Sample: Discessit ut cogitáret. Discessit…​ Answer: ad cogitandum. Ioseph egressus est ut fléret. Ioseph egressus est…​ Pater remansit domi ut doléret. Pater remansit…​ Iacob venit in Aegyptum ut habitáret ibi. Iacob venit in Aegyptum…​ Haec fecit ut obliviscerétur. Haec fecit.. Reversus est ut dormíret. Reversus est…​ Venistis ut nocerétis. Venistis…​ Portam aperuit ut ingrederétur. Portam aperuit…​ Os suum aperuit ut loquerétur. Os suum aperuit…​

B. Now let us use the possessive followed by causa for the same sentences.

C. Here are some two part sentences. In the second part, use the poss. of a gerund. Sample: María amat loqui. María habet amórem…​ Answer: loquendi. Marcus amábat dormíre. Marcus habébat amórem…​ Imperátor potest puníre. Imperátor habet potestátem…​ Rex potest imperáre. Rex habet potestátem…​ Fratres voluérunt discédere. Fratres rogavérunt licentiam…​ Paulus voluit navigáre. Paulus rogávit licentiam…​ María non legébat. Non erat tempus…​ Agnus non reversus est. Non erat tempus…​ Catilína noluit mori. Catilína noluit habére causam…​ Ars rhetórica docet hómines loqui. Ars rhetórica est ars…​ Ars belli docet hómines pugnáre. Ars belli est ars…​

D. Let us recall that a present participle, in any case, can mean by doing etc. In the second part of these sentences, substitute the ablative of a gerund for the present participle. Sample: Scipio pugnans fórtiter Romam servávit. Scipio Romam servávit…​ Answer: pugnando fórtiter. — Marcus peccans meruit puníri. Marcus meruit puníri…​ Paulus labórans accépit cibum. Paulus accépit cibum…​ Flens Ioseph ostendit dolórem. Ioseph ostendit dolórem…​ Fabius perseverans vicit hostes. Fabius vicit hostes…​ Imperátor cógitans viam invénit. Imperátor viam invénit…​ Mílites fugientes sese servavérunt. Mílites sese servavérunt…​

E. Here are some two part sentences. In the second we will use two datives, to say something or someone is or is sent “for a help to someone” and similar things. Sample: Marcus hanc curam habébit. Hoc erit…​ Answer: curae Marco (This will be “for a care to Marcus”). — Románi habébunt auxilium sociórum. Socii erunt…​ Mílites habébunt hoc signum. Hoc erit…​ Pater habuit hunc dolórem. Hoc erat…​ Marcus dedit auxilium nobis. Marcus missus est…​ Ioséphus dedit salútem frátribus. Ioséphus missus est…​ Agnus erit cibus marci. Agnus erit…​ Románi habébunt carnes porcínas. Porcus erit…​

69

A. Here are some two part sentences, with similar, though not identical meaning in the two parts. In the second, use a future active participle plus some form of the Latin verb to be. Sample: Caesar vult veníre. Caesar…​ Answer: ventúrus est. — Cícero vult loqui. Cícero…​ Agnus vult sequi. Agnus…​ Catilína vult peccáre. Catilína…​ Pater vult ire. Pater…​ María vult cúrrere. María…​ Fratres volunt manére. Fratres…​ Féminae volunt mutáre. Féminae…​

B. And now a little change. We will use a future active infinitive. Sample: Caesar veniet. Caesar dícitur…​ Answer: venturus esse. Iacob manébit. Iacob dícitur…​ Ioseph fratres servábit. Ioseph dícitur fratres…​ Fratres frumentum portábunt. Fratres dicuntur frumentum…​ Rex recordábitur. Rex dícitur…​ María redíbit. María dícitur…​

C. Now to use the future infinitive in indirect statements. Change the quod types to objective and infinitive types. Sample: Dicit quod Caesar veniet. Dicit…​ Answer: Caésarem ventúrum esse. — Dicit quod Cícero loquétur. Dicit…​ Dicit quod fratres peccábunt. Dicit fratres…​ Dicit quod María manébit. Dicit…​ — And now a few after dixit: this does not affect the infinitive structure at all. But it allows — not requires — an imperfect subjunctive instead of future indicative with quod. Sample: Dixit quod Caesar veníret or veniet. Dixit…​ Answer: Caésarem ventúrum esse. Dixit quod fratres portárent ou portábunt frumentum. Dixit…​ Dixit quod rex recordarétur ou recordábitur. Dixit…​ Dixit quod navis abíret ou abíbit. Dixit…​ Dixit quod pater doléret ou dolébit. Dixit…​ (Note to teacher: If desired, tell students to omit the esse with the infinitive forms when replaying this tape.)

D. Here are a few sentences that need two objectives. Complete the translation. Sample: He asks Marcus for money. Rogat…​ Answer: Marcum pecuniam. They created Cincinnatus dictator. Creavérunt…​ He asked the king for grain. Rogávit…​ They called him good. Vocavérunt…​ He taught Mary many things. Docuit…​

70

Repeat 67, 68, 69.

71

A. Here are some three part sentences. In the second, fill in a comparative adjective, in the third, a superlative. Sample: Marcus est clarus. Paulus est…​ Answer: clarior. Fabius est…​ Answer: claríssimus. — Crassus est superbus. Pompeius est…​ Cícero est…​ Haec oratio est véhemens. Illa oratio est…​ Cicerónis oratio est…​ Hi porci sunt pingues. Illi porci sunt…​ Catónis porci sunt…​ Marci somnium erat breve. Pauli somnium erat…​ Ioséphi somnium erat…​ Cleopatra est grata. Claudia est…​ María est…​ Caesar est gravis. Cato est…​ Porcus est…​ Hic vir est aeger. Ille est…​ Catilína est…​ Cleopatra est pulchra. Fulvia est…​ María est…​ Lingua Graeca est fácilis. Lingua Anglica est…​ Lingua Latina est…​ Hic vir est húmilis. Ille est…​ Ioséphus est…​ Crassus est magnus. Pompeius est…​ Caesar est…​ Marcus est bonus. Paulus est…​ Fabius est…​ Etrusci sunt multi. Galli sunt…​ Románi sunt…​ Porcus est parvus. Agnus est…​ Canis est…​ Curius est malus. Manlius est…​ Catilína est…​

B. Complete these sentences in two ways, first with, then without quam. Sample: Caesar est clarior than Marcus. Answer: quam Marcus, Marco. — Crassus est divitior than Caesar. Hoc negotium est difficilius than that. Hoc flumen est plenius than that river. Coelum est altius than the earth. Hoc horreum est altius than that barn.

72

A. Fill in the adverbs. Cícero lóquitur clearly. Caesar scripsit haec beautifully. Crassus explicávit haec fully. Imperátor imperávit proudly. María animadvertit haec well. Marcus cucurrit badly. Amíci nostri iuvábant much. Románi ruérunt heavily. Marcus cupit hoc vehemently. Pompeius loquétur briefly. Románi pugnavérunt badly.

B. Fill in comparative and superlative adverbs in the second and third parts. Marcus lóquitur clare. Hortensius loquitur…​ Cícero loquitur…​ Praeco explicávit haec pulchre. Cato explicávit…​ Marcellus explicávit…​ Hic vir imperávit superbe. Ille imperávit…​ Pompeius imperávit…​ Galli cecidérunt gráviter. Aequi cecidérunt…​ Carthaginienses cecidérunt…​ Marcus cupit hoc vehementer. Paulus cupit…​ Cato cupit…​ Hic vir locútus est bréviter. Ille locútus est…​ Bíbulus locútus est…​ Marius fecit haec male. Sulla fecit haec…​ Catilína fecit haec…​ Hi iuvábant multum. Illi iuvábant…​ Mílites nostri iuvábant…​ Paulus cucurrit bene. Marcus cucurrit…​ Fabius cucurrit…​

73

A. First the tape will tell us two possibilities that are related. Change them to two parts of a conditional sentence, a part at a time. After you have done this, the tape will give the whole sentence complete. Repeat it after the tape. Sample: Forsan Marcus vénerit. Forsan María laeta erit. Si Marcus…​ Answer: Si Marcus vénerit. María…​ Answer: María laeta erit. Si Marcus vénerit, María laeta erit. — Forsan Marcus víderit hostes. Forsan Marcus hostes interficiet. Si Marcus hostes…​ Marcus hostes…​ Forsan senex vénerit. Forsan senex Ioséphum vidébit. Si senex…​ Ioséphum…​ Forsan fames in Aegypto non est. Forsan frumentum vénditur ibi. Si fames in Aegypto…​ frumentum ibi…​ Forsan praeco scyphum inveniet. Forsan rex nos puniet. Si praeco scyphum…​ rex nos…​ Forsan exploratóres erant. Forsan terram spectáre voluérunt. Si exploratóres…​ terram spectáre…​ Forsan ille sapientiam habet. Forsan somnium interpretári potest. Si ille sapientiam…​ somnium interpretári…​ Forsan pater eum amittet. Forsan pater moriétur. Si pater eum…​ pater…​ Forsan rex nos non amat. Forsan frumentum non dabit. Si rex nos…​ frumentum…​ Forsan fera eum devorávit. Forsan ego moriar. Si fera eum…​ ego…​ Forsan Ioséphus vivit. Forsan eum vidébo. Si Ioséphus…​ eum…​ Forsan fratres peccavérunt. Forsan mérito patiuntur. Si fratres…​ mérito…​ Forsan Béniamin est bonus. Forsan Béniamin scyphum non cepit. Si Béniamin…​ scyphum…​

B. Here are some two part sentences. Repeat the second part entirely in Latin. For variety, we can add the word “paulo”, meaning “a little”. Sample: Marcus altus est. Paulus est a little taller. Answer: Paulus est paulo altior. — Crassus est gravis. cato est a little heavier. Hortensius est clarus. Cícero est a little more famous. Caésaris orátio erat véhemens. Cicerónis orátio erat much more vehement. Hic gladius est brevis. Ille gladius est two feet shorter. Haec via est longa. Illa via est 10 miles longer. Curius est malus. Catilína est much worse. Fulvia est bona. María est much better.

74

Repeat 71-73.

75

A. First the tape will give two related sentences. Put them together into a conditional sentence. Notice that in the first group, if one form has non, the changed form will not have it. and vice versa. But the tape itself will handle that feature for you. In the first group, we will use impf. or plupf. subj. according to the sense. Sample: Marcus non adest. María non est laeta. Si Marcus…​ Answer: adesset. Maria laeta…​ Answer: esset. — After completing the two parts, the tape will repeat the whole sentences. Say it after the tape. Ioséphus non est malus. Ioséphus non punit fratres. Si Ioséphus malus…​ Ioséphus fratres…​ Frumentum est in Aegypto. Fratres habent frumentum. Si frumentum in Aegypto non…​ fratres frumentum non…​ Ioséphus vivit. Pater non flet. Si Ioséphus non…​ pater…​ Pharao non negávit. Iacob in Aegypto habitávit. Si Pharao…​ Iacob in Aegypto non…​ Praeco scyphum reperuit. Fratres térriti sunt. Si praeco scyphum non…​ fratres non…​ Hebraéi crevérunt número. Aegyptii Hebraéos timuérunt. Si Hebraéi número non…​ Aegypti Hebraéos non…​ — Now here are two examples in which the two clauses will have different tenses, i.e., one will have imperf. the other plupf. Móyses mirácula multa fecit. Hebraéi in Aegypto non rémanent. Si Móyses mirácula non…​ Hebraéi in Aegypto…​ Ioséphus est vir bonus. Fratres accepérunt frumentum. Si Ioséphus vir bonus non…​ fratres frumentum non…​ — Now here are a few to use pres, or perf. subj. Forsan púeri morientur. Forsan Pharao Hebraéos dimittet. Si púeri…​ Pharao Hebraéos…​ Forsan plagae vénerint. Forsan Aegyptii timébunt. Si plagae…​ Aegyptii…​

B. Here are some two part sentences. In the second, fill in a form of malle to match the form of amáre in the first part. Sample: Hoc amo; illud…​ Answer: malo. — María Paulum amat; María Marcum…​ Frumentum amámus; carnes bovínas assas…​ Románi bellum amant; Románi pacem…​ Graecos amas; Romános…​ Etiam inimícos amátis; bonos amícos…​ Iacob Aegyptum amávit; Chanaan…​

76

A. Here are some three part sentences. In the third part, use a gerundive. Sample: Marcus consul factus est. Marcus dona dedit. Marcus consul factus est donis…​ Answer: dandis. — Románi vicérunt Cartháginem. Románi naves delevérunt. Románi vicérunt Cartháginem návibus…​ Móyses Hebraéos liberávit. Móyses signa fecit. Móyses Hebraéos liberávit signis…​ Ioséphus placuit Deo. Ioséphus fratres adiúvit. Ioséphus placuit Deo frátribus…​ Áaron plagam fecit. Áaron percussit púlverem. Áaron plagam fecit…​

B. Here are some similar sentences, but we will use prepositions with the gerundives. Sample: Brutus interfectus est. Brutus liberávit patriam. Brutus interfectus est in patria…​ Answer: in patria liberanda. Multi mílites occísi sunt. Mílites cepérunt óppida. Multi mílites occísi sunt in óppidis…​ Imperátor ostendit sapientiam. Imperátor praemia dividébat. Imperátor ostendit sapientiam in praemiis…​ Vir malus non erat fortis. Vir malus non ferébat exsilium. Vir malus non erat fortis in exsilio…​ Cícero monstrávit prudentiam. Cícero epístulas scribébat. Cícero monstrávit prudentiam in epístulis…​ Marcus scripsit librum. Marcus gloriam contempsit. Marcus scripsit librum de gloria…​ Scipio fecit consilia. Scipio vicit Cartháginem. Scipio fecit consilia de Carthágine…​ Románi multa didicérunt. Románi pópulos regébant. Románi multa didicérunt de pópulis…​ Scipio multa scivit. Scipio bella gerébat. Scipio multa scivit de bellis…​ And now some in the possessive case. Románi habuérunt causam. Románi regem expulérunt. Románi habuérunt causam regis…​ Dux fecit consilium. Dux cepit urbem. Dux fecit consilium urbis…​ Senátus habuit consuetúdinem. Senátus creávit dictatórem. Senátus habuit consuetúdinem dictatóris…​ Hostes misérunt nuntios. Hostes pacem petébant. Hostes misérunt nuntios pacis…​ Ars est diffícilis. Diffícile est hómines régere. Diffícilis est ars hóminum…​

77

A. Here are some two part sentences. Fill in the second part with an ut subj. clause. Sample: Senátus voluit Scipiónem ire. Senátui placuit ut…​ Answer: Scipio iret. — Pharao voluit patrem habitáre ibi. Pharaóni placuit ut…​ Senátus voluit Cicerónem interfícere eos. Senátui placuit ut…​ Consul non voluit illos égredi. Cónsuli non placuit ut…​ — And now, let us do the same with oportet, but we will use the subj. without ut. Sample: Debent patrem curáre. Oportet…​ Answer: patrem curent. — Debet persuadere regi. Oportet…​ Debet prodesse frátribus. Oportet…​ Fratres debent pecuniam restitúere. Oportet fratres…​ Debes consilia intellégere. Oportet…​ Now translate the filled in sentences.

B. Here are more two part sentences, but now use an objective and infinitive in the second part. Sample: Pater manet. Licet…​ Answer: patrem manére. — Scipio discédit. Licet…​ Ille intérficit coniuratóres. Licet…​ Illi non egrediuntur. Non licet…​ — And now, let us do these with a dative and an infinitive. Sample: Pater manet. Licet…​ Answer: patri manére. Scipio discédit. Licet…​ Ille interficit coniuratores. Licet…​ Illi non egridiuntur. Non licet…​ — Now let us do these with the objective and infinitive: Fratres debent patrem curáre. Oportet…​ Ioséphus debet prodesse frátribus. Oportet…​ Fratres debent pecuniam restitúere. Oportet…​ Debes consilia intellégere. Oportet…​ Now translate the filled in sentences.

C. Now let us change the active forms to an impersonal of similar meaning. Ordinarily we cannot tell who does the action, unless the general story tells us, that is, it might be: they, he, you, we, etc. Here, however, for variety, we will let our imagination replace the story, and use various possible equivalents. Sample: Constituérunt…​ Answer: constitútum est. — Respondérunt…​ Narrávit…​ Parávimus…​ — And now some in which there is no similar passive form in English — but the Latin runs just like the others. Venérunt…​ Iérunt…​ Exclamávit…​ Consulúimus…​ Nocúimus…​ Cucurristis…​ Perserveravisti…​ Pepercérunt…​

D. Here are some two part sentences. In the second part, use an abl. without a preposition to mean “because of”. Sample: Fecit haec propter peccáta mea. Fecit haec…​ Answer: peccátis meis. — Agnus in scholam venit ob amórem veritátis. Agnus in scholam venit…​ Cícero non potuit loqui ob dolórem. Cícero non potuit loqui…​ Caesar non remansit domi propter monitiónem vatis. caesar domi non remansit…​ Dux movit bellum ob odium Romanórum. Dux movit bellum…​ Navis non potuit navigáre ob ventos fortes. Navis non potuit navigáre…​ Iacob discessit in Aegyptum propter famem. Iacob discessit in Aegyptum…​

E. Here are more two part sentences. In the second part use an ablative without a preposition to mean “from”. Lépidus non habuit potestátem. Caesar privávit Lépidum…​ Carthágo non habuit frumentum. Scipio interclúsit Cartháginem…​ Tarquinius non remansit in regno suo. Tarquinius expulsus est…​ Signum non est in loco suo. Dux movit signum…​ Non iam metum séntimus. Fabius liberávit nos…​ Ioséphus non iam est in vínculis. Rex solvit eum…​

78

Repeat 75, 76, 77.

79

A. How do you say: At Rome, at Carthage, at Tarentum, at Capua, at Athens, at home.

B. Here are some two part sentences. In the second part, use an ablative meaning “by”. First, some that need ab, then some without ab, and finally, a mixture. Sample: Regína vidit Marcum. Marcus visus est…​ Answer: a regína. — María cepit Marcum. Marcus captus est…​ Imperátor misit mílites. Mílites missi sunt…​ Fratres Ioséphum vendidérunt. Ioséphus vénditus est…​ Mílites Cicerónem decollavérunt. Cícero decollátus est…​ — And now some without ab: Ignis pontem delévit. Pons delétus est…​ Perículum mílites terruit. Mílites térriti sunt…​ Véritas movit eos. Illi moti sunt…​ Perículum terruit Marcum. Marcus térritus est…​ — And now, a mixture: Mílites Cicerónem percussérunt. Cícero percussus est…​ Gladius Cicerónem percussit. Cícero percussus est…​ Dolor patrem vicit. Pater victus est…​ Víncula Ioséphum ligavérunt. Ioséphus ligátus est…​ Dux mílites duxit. Mílites ducti sunt…​ Amor pecuniae mílites movit. Mílites moti sunt…​ Marcus haec reperuit. Haec reperta sunt…​

80

A. Here are some clauses with quamquam and quia, and a few abl. absolutes. Change all to cum clauses, with subj. Sample: Ioséphus non odit fratres quamquam ipsi nocúerant. Ioséphus non odit fratres cum ipsi…​ Answer: nocuissent. — Pharao peccávit, quamquam mirácula víderat. Pharao peccávit cum mirácula…​ Non fugérunt quamquam hostes conspexérunt. Non fugérunt cum hostes…​ Non timeo quamquam Hanníbalem video. Non timeo cum…​ Non fugérunt quia hostes conspexérunt. Non fugérunt cum…​ Non timeo quia Hanníbalem video. Non timeo cum…​ Fratres miráti sunt quia Ioséphum potentem esse intellexérunt. Fratres miráti sunt cum Ioséphum potentem esse…​ Gallis venientibus, ánseres exclamavérunt. Ánseres exclamavérunt cum Galli…​ Sacerdótibus invocantibus, Baal non respondit. Baal non respondit cum sacerdótes…​

B. Now here are some with quando. Notice that some are the same as certain sentences used above, except that they have quando instead of quamquam or quia. Change all to cum clauses. Some will want indic., some will want subj. If the setting of the whole sentence is present or future, the cum will have indic. for sure. But if the setting is in the past, then, if the things mentioned in the two clauses are not connected — that is, if one does not happen because, or in spite of the other, but they merely happen to come at the same time — then we will use indicative: otherwise, subj. First, some that use subj. Marcus non timuit, quando in magno perículo erat. Marcus non timuit cum in magno perículo…​ Iacob laetus erat, quando Ioséphum víderat. Iacob laetus erat, cum Ioséphum…​ Ioséphus non nocuit frátribus quando tantam potestátem habuit. Ioséphus non nocuit frátribus cum tantam potestátem…​ Agnus exclamávit quando Marcus discessit. Agnus exclamávit cum Marcus…​ — And now, some for indicative, in a past setting: María erat Romae, quando Marcus erat Carthágine. María erat Romae, cum Marcus Carthágine…​ Ille scripsit tres libros historiae quando consul erat. Ille scripsit tres libros historiae cum consul…​ Marcus multas aves vidit quando in urbem veniébat. Marcus multos aves vidit cum in urbem…​ Imperátor in monte erat quando nuntius pervénit. Imperátor in monte erat cum nuntius…​ Quintus Romae erat quando haec Carthágine agebantur. Quintus Romae erat cum haec Carthágine…​ Habitábam Romae quando Tarquinius regnábat. Habitábam Romae cum Tarquinius…​ Caesar áberat quando pons delebátur. Caesar áberat cum pons…​ — Notice that in some sentences of this last group, the situation might have been the other way, that is, the story might have been such that the writer would feel that the one thing happened because of or in spite of the other: then the subj. would have been correct. For example: “Habitábam Romae quando Tarquinius regnábat” might mean simply “at the time when he ruled” or it might have an extra feeling of “although he ruled”. This would depend on the whole story, or even, on the way the writer feels about it. The same thing could happen with this one: “Caesar áberat quando pons delebátur.” The feeling might have been: “although this important operation was going on.” — But now, here are some in present setting. Now we can ignore all such extra feelings of although or because even if they are really present. The mere fact that cum is to mean when definitely calls for indicative: Imperátor vidébit haec quando vénerit. Imperátor vidébit haec cum…​ Regína veniet quand póterit. Regína veniet cum…​ Fugient quando hostes conspéxerint. Fugient cum hostes…​ Timeo quando Hanníbalem video. Timeo cum Hanníbalem…​ — Notice that this last sentence was also used early in this practice, with meanings of because and although, with subjunctive. With some sentences, it all depends on what the writer feels the sense should be.

81

A. Change these contracted forms to the longer forms: peccasti, amastis, liberárunt, delesti, delérunt, delestis, puniérunt, punisti, peccárim, amárit, paccárint, delérint, delérim, delérit, audíerim, audíerit, puníeris, liberasset, amassem, peccasses, parassent, liberassémus, amassétis, delesset, delessem, punissem, audisset, punissent, amárat, peccáram, paráras, delérant, puníeram, audíerat, finíeras, paráro, délero, audíero.

B. Change these longer forms to contracted forms: amavisti, liberavisti, peccavérunt, delevisti, delevistis, delevérunt, punivisti, punivistis, punivérunt, amáverim, peccáverit, amáverint, deléverim, deléverint, puníverim, audíverit, puníveris, paravisset, amavissem, pecavisses, amavissent, liberavissémus, peccavisétis, delevisset, delevissem, audivissem, punivisset, audivissent, amáverat, peccáveram, liberáveras, deléverat, deléverant, audíveram, puníverat, finíverat, finíveras, amávero, delévero, punívero.